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Benefits of Cardio Activity: Muscles, Glucose and protein, an Ideal Pre-Game Meal, Pros/Cons of Ergogenic Aids

1. What are the short and long term benefits of cardio-respiratory fitness?

2. How do muscles gain strength and size?

3. How does your body utilize glucose and protein for muscular activity?

4. Give examples of an effective pre-game meal?

5. Name and describe the pros and cons of various ergogenic aids: caffeine, carnitine, chromium picolinate,
creatine, amino acids and protein powders?

Solution Preview

1. What are the short and long term benefits of cardio-respiratory fitness?

As a result of cardio-respiratory fitness, the body adapts and increases VO2 max, stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxidative capacity of muscle. It decreases resting heat rate and exercising heart rate. In addition, regular cardio-respiratory activities or exercises can decrease daily fatigue, anxiety, depression, coronary artery disease, hypertension, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, cancer, osteoporosis and obesity. It potentially increases flexibility, work, recreational and sports performance, a sense of well-being, the blood lipid profile, insulin sensitive, glucose tolerance and immunity. In addition, capillary density and mitochondrial density increase. Enzymes creatine phophokinase and myokinase increase. Metabolic energy stores (ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen, triglycerides increase), ligament and tendon strength increases, and percent of body fat can decrease.

2. How do muscles gain strength and size?

Muscle gain in strength and size (hypertrophy) is in response to increased volumes of tension (like in resistance training). It is believed to result from an increase in the myofibril proteins (myofilaments). To gain muscle strength, muscle fibers must be recruited. The nervous system must establish the proper connection to effectively communicate with each muscle fiber. Type II fibers show greater increase in size than Type I fibers, so the more Type II fibers an athlete has (genetically determined), the more potential they have for increasing muscle mass. Resistance training increases myofibrillar volume, cytoplasmic density and T-tubule ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses the long and short term benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness, how muscles gain strength and size, how the body utilizes glucose and protein for muscular activity, and examples of an effective pre-game meal. It also gives the pros and cons for caffeine, carnitine, chromium picolinate, creatine, amino acids and protein powders. Includes 3 APA formatted references.

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