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Policy Making Models

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There are four basic models or approaches to policy making: (a) the rational approach, (b) incrementalism, (c) the policy-stream model, and (d) the stage-sequential model. Like the various nursing-theory models, a model that serves as a framework for approaching policy and policy making provides critical structure to this process

Which model of policy making would be best applied to the issue of "Spreading of HIV/AIDS in the youth" and what is the rationale for selecting this model. Please have an in-text citation in APA format that is less than five years old.

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The four basic models have clear different purposes for policy making. The rationale approach is a step by step model which is highly logical and carefully sequenced. Incrementalism allows for change in small steps as the need arises. This means policy is adjusted as through negotiation and not all at one time. It often involves trial and error. The next model is the policy-stream model. This model uses a wide range of policies that may target the issue and often used in to target cost-benefit issues for profit making companies. Lastly, the sequential model is as it implies is four different stages; policy setting agenda, formulation, implementation and evaluation. The last model is the one that most closely emulates the nursing care model that is commonly used in the profession (Blair, & Smith, 2012).

To decide what model that is best, it might help to rule out those that would not be helpful. The development of policy is no easy task and must be taken in a very systematic approach. This starts with looking at what is already in existence in the area of focus. Start with the idea and what is the scope and goals of the policy. What are the policies aiming to accomplish? Are there existing policies in place to start from and to build upon? The "spreading of ...

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Using a policy making model to strategize the best way to develop a policy regarding the "Spread of HIV/AIDS in youth.

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Wal-Mart: Solution-Oriented Decision Models

Select a real company (not a retailer). Identify 4 decisions that the company makes at different levels of the organization. Describe the policies, procedures and decision-making tools that might be used to make each of the four decisions. In each case, explain why the decision-making methodology would be appropriate to this specific company's strategy.
For example, Wal-Mart makes decisions about:
a) where to locate new stores;
b) which additional businesses to include in its stores (travel agent, bank, optician, etc.);
c) specific products to discontinue selling;
d) who to hire (and fire);
e) how many cash registers to have open at any given time;
f) accepting a specific item for customer return (for example, an article of clothing that appears to have been worn).

Who would make these decisions? What criteria would they use? How might the criteria have been established? Would they use any kind of quantitative analysis? If so, which specific quantitative methods might be appropriate? How much discretion would the decision-makers have? Who would review or evaluate their decisions?

The process must - at some point - identify some alternatives (no less than 2, and no more than 6) and a way of choosing just ONE of them.

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