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    WMA's Declaration of Helsinki

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    A number of national, regional, inter-regional, and international ethical documents are norms that have been developed to guide investigators, ethical committees, the pharmaceutical industry, and other sponsors in the ethical conduct of clinical trials. Research and report on one of these: The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki.

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    The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki is a living document that establishes ethical guidelines for physicians and others participating in medical research. The document was first adopted in 1964 and has been revised through the years according to developments and changes in the biomedical field. The last revision was done in 2000 with notes of clarification added in 2002 and 2004. It is not only a guiding document but an ethical cornerstone of biomedical research" (Tyebkhan, 2003, para. 5.).

    The Declaration of Helsinki (The Declaration) is divided in the following sections: the introduction, basic principles for all medical research, principles for all medical research, and additional principles for medical research combined with numerical paragraphs (World Medical Association, Inc.[WMA], 2008). The document places the person's well-being over that of science or society (Carlson, Boyd, & Webb, 2004; Tyebkhan, 2003). With paternalism philosophy and following the "do no harm" ethical principle, the Declaration assigns sole responsibility for the patient's safety, health and privacy on the physician including those on ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution consist of an essay that discusses the importance of the WMA's Declaration of Helsinki. It includes a description of the document, its origen, and how it influenced modern clinical research. The use of placebo as delineated by the document is discussed.