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Internal validity - threat

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What would be a threat to internal validity? What is an example?

Validity in research study design usually refers to the tools used to measure aspects of the research question, for example a questionnaire is used in survey design and is said to have 'internal validity' if the questions are precise enough to get answers which address the aims of the study. For example if you want to know about body mass you need precise height measurements and precise weights for the results to have internal validity.

'External validity' is satisfied if these same questions are generalisable or transferable to other studies with similar aims but which deal with a different population, for example children not adults, or a different place, e'g' America or Africa or a different time- i.e. in the summer or in the winter. If the questionnaire has 'external validity' it doesn't matter, who, where or when the questions are asked they will meet the aims of the study.

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This solution explains and provides examples of threats to internal validity. Source is provided.

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Resolving Internal Validity Threats in an Experiment Design

Consider the following scenario:

60 children, ages 3-5, are selected to participate in a program for developing non-verbal communication skills. The children were selected on the basis of extremely low scores on a test of non-verbal communication. After participating in the program, the children are re-tested. An average improvement of 59% is observed in the quality of non-verbal communications.

What threat to internal validity is present in this situation? How can this confound be eliminated?

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