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Nuclear power accidents

According to the International Atomic Energy Authority they have identified 33 serious incidents and accidents at nuclear power stations since the first recorded one in 1952 at Chalk River in Ontario, Canada. The two accidents you will review with this assignment include theChernobyl accident that occurred in1986 in the Ukraine and finally the nuclear accident that occurred at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant.

For each one please identify:
What cause the accident?
How was the accident monitor? (Keep in mind the ALARA Principles)
What was the immediate response of the power plant workers?
Was there any radiation exposure to the employees, rescue workers or the community? How much? What type of exposure did they receive?
If exposure occurred how were they treated?(Recall whole body exposure)
Was the immediate area contaminated and what happened to the community surrounding the power plant?
What are some of the long-term concerns for the community?
Finally, what have we(radiation professionals) learned from these accidents?

Please be specific and go into detail for each accident. Also provide references with your work, no copying and pasting please.

Solution Preview

Chernoby accidents
What cause the accident?

Chernobyl accident in 1986 was caused by a flawed reactor design that was recklessly operated by the trained personnel. In other words, the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine was caused by a "flawed Soviet reactor design" and serious mistakes by the operators. The crew at Chernoby 4 were preparing for a test to determine how long the turbines would spin and supply power to main circulating pumps after loss of main electrical power supply. However, at that time, the power from the turbine ran down too rapidly. Operator actions including the disabling of automatic shutdown mechanisms preceded the attempted test. A flaw design of the control rods caused the dramatic power surge as they were inserted into the reactor. The overpressure caused the 1000 t cover plate of reactor to become detached, rupturing the fule channels and jamming the control rods that led to an explosion.

How was the accident monitor? (Keep in mind the ALARA Principles)

The Chernobyl accident caused the release of the largest radioactive material into the environment ever recorded that cause serious social and economic disruption for a large population in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. The cleaning up of the radioactivity at the site involved about 200,000 people ( liquidators) from all over the Soviet Union during. 1986-1987. The liquidators received high doses of radiation averaging around 100 millisieverts. About 20,000 received about 250 mSv. (1)

What was the immediate response of the power plant workers?
The two workers died as a result of the explosion. The accidents caused "the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment ever recorded for civilian operation and large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the air for 10 days. This caused serious social and economic disturbance for large population in Russia , Belarus, and Ukraine.

Was there any radiation exposure to the employees, rescue workers or the community? ...

Solution Summary

Chernobyl accident in 1986 was caused by a flawed reactor design that was recklessly operated by the trained personnel. In other words, the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine was caused by a "flawed Soviet reactor design" and serious mistakes by the operators.

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