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# Power generation turbines and solar panels

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1.Figure 1 shows (please see attachment Figure 1 Output characteristic of a PV module.pptx) the relationship between the output voltage and the current supplied by a complete PV module.

a.Under the same light intensity as in Figure 1, each individual cell in this module has an open-circuit voltage of 0.5 V and a short-circuit current of 1.2 A. Describe, in words or by means of a labelled diagram, how a set of these cells must be connected in the module in order to give the output characteristic shown.

b.Calculate the power supplied by the module when it operates at each of the points, X, Y and Z of Figure 1. Comment briefly on the significance of the relative values of your three answers.

2. Briefly describe the main difference between a Francis turbine and a Pelton wheel in each of the following three respects.

a.The way the water enters and leaves the turbine runner.

b.The means by which the water gives up energy to the turbine.

c.The type of site for which the turbine is most suitable.

##### Solution Summary

2 questions addressed concerning: solar power generation and PV modules; water (Pelton) wheels and Francis turbines

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1.Figure 1 shows (please see attachment Figure 1 Output characteristic of a PV module.pptx) the relationship between the output voltage and the current supplied by a complete PV module.

a. Under the same light intensity as in Figure 1, each individual cell in this module has an open-circuit voltage of 0.5 V and a short-circuit current of 1.2 A. Describe, in words or by means of a labelled diagram, how a set of these cells must be connected in the module in order to give the output characteristic shown

The first thing to consider in tackling this problem is to note that the PV module will consist of a number (call it m) of identical individual cells connected in series and with each series combination then connected (by a number, call it n) in parallel
Such a depiction, of the whole PV module, is shown below

Circuit theory dictates that the required output PV module design voltage (9V in this case as read from the IV characteristic above) is produced from a number m of series connected individual cells (voltage across of all parallel connected elements is the same). The number of series connected elements is thus determined from the design equation below
m=(PV module design voltage (open ...

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