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    1. List the factors that influence the need for childcare

    2. Name the various types of childcare used by families

    3. Explain the program philosophy of early childhood education

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    1. List the factors that influence the need for childcare

    It is traditional in western society for children to be looked after by one or both of their parents, but the need for two-job households means that childcare is often delegated, at least part of the time, to child minders or crèches.
    Most Western countries also have compulsory education, and during the time the children are at school, the school will act in loco parentis.
    Where parents are missing or dead, or unable or unfit to care for children, state agencies such as social services may take on the childcare role.
    People with demanding work or social lives or who need or prefer the services of professionals may delegate the parental role almost completely to nannies.
    However, for many the use of paid childcare is a matter of choice with arguments raging on both sides about whether children suffer or not. There is no doubt that for all children the first few years are vitally important to form a basis for good education, morality, self discipline and social integration. Consistency of approach, discipline and carer have been shown in some studies to improve the chances of a child reaching his or her full potential, but the jury is still out on whether there are demonstrable benefits of a parent or full time family carer over paid childcare.
    In many societies, the childcare role is taken on by the extended families.
    2. Name the various types of childcare used by families

    The types of childcare used by families include:
    crèches - provide occasional care for children under eight
    toddler groups - informal groups of parents and carers that meet locally with their children on a regular basis, usually including children who are under five
    pre-schools and playgroups - provide play time and often early education to under fives
    day nurseries - provide care for children from birth to four or five and beyond, often integrated with early education and other services
    out-of-school or 'kids' clubs - offer children aged four to 12 a safe and stimulating environment in which they can play and learn outside school hours
    childminders - usually look after children under 12 in the childminder's own home and ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution list factors that influence the need for childcare, names various types, and explains the program philosophy of early childhood education.