Pose 3 informed questions to the writer of the following comment:
Since the latest disasters Tsunami and Katrina the concern for waterborne diseases seems to be a concern for not only the public, but a national public health concern. The CDC reported that since 1971, the CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointing decided to hold a surveillance program where periodic reporting and data collection of outbreaks is carried out. Between 1991-1992, 17 states and territories reported 34 outbreaks associated with water intended for drinking. The outbreaks caused an estimated 17,464 persons to become ill. A protozoal parasite (Giardia lamblia or Cryptosporidium) was identified as the etiologic agent for seven of the 11 outbreaks for which an agent was determined (MMWR,1993).
In an public health article, titled Well-Water Maintenance, it is reported that Campylobacter, Escherichia and Cryptosporidum were common pathogens transmitted in water (Weir, 2005). It stated that in most jurisdiction private water sources (wells) are not protected by drinking water regulations. Water testing is recommended, but not necessary not mandatory. Many wells or private water source tap into ground water- ground water comes from rain and melting snow. Wells must be dug deep enough to remain in the saturated zone- the deeper the well the better the groundwater. There is no standardized mandate or regulation as to the distance a well must be from other possible contaminating sources such as skeptic tanks, live stock yards, etc..
There are six steps to safe Well-water; identify potential problem sources, talk with local experts, get water tested periodically, set regular maintenance schedule and keep up-to-date records and remedy any problems (Weir, 2005). Overall most waterborne disease are associated with recreational use- with hot-tub and whirl pool being the two highest reported activities (MMWR, 1993).
(1) As most waterborne illnesses are associated with private hot tub and whirlpool use, how could regulations help reduce the number of cases?
(2) How are problems with microorganism contamination ...
environmental sources of exposure
1 What are some examples of environmental sources of exposure of populations to toxic heavy metals? What factors can exacerbate the effects of toxic exposures on populations with low socioeconomic status? 50 words
2 What types of injury of public health concern are associated with exposure to each of the different forms of radiation? How does the risk of each injury vary with the dose of the radiation in question? 50 words
3 How do vectors play a role in the transmission of disease? What are some procedures for control and prevention? Provide a specific example. 50 words
4 Unlike other toxins or contaminants with which the public can come into contact, pesticides are intentionally applied to food, living spaces, and people. What are some of the risk-benefit issues in the application of pesticides? Is the risk justified? Explain your position. 50 words
5 Explore the following statement: "The answer to a waterborne disease outbreak is to 'shock' chlorinate." What health risks would be mitigated with this approach? What new health risks might emerge from the application of large doses of chlorine? 50 words
6 What actions can be taken to lower air pollution emissions? Consider actions that can be taken at the individual, community, and government levels. 50 words