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Protection against a path failure in SONET

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A SONET transmission system can be configured in two different ways to protect against a path failure (protection switching). What are the names of the two network configurations?

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a) Linear Automatic Protection Switching. This involves 4 fibers: 2 working fibers in each direction, and two protection fibers.

b) Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR): In a UPSR, two redundant (path-level) copies of protected traffic are ...

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MBA Financial Statement Analysis

I need to find the following information for Cissco and their competitors and do the questions below:

Net operating profit (NOPAT) margin and net operating asset (NOA) turnover for several selected companies for 2005 follow:
Company NOA Turnover NOPAT Margin
Albertsons, Inc 3.59 2.20%
Alcoa, Inc 1.51 5.93%
Caterpillar, Inc 1.99 6.96%
Home Depot, Inc 2.72 6.64%
McDonalds Corporation 0.89 12.61%
SBC Communications, Inc 0.79 10.62%
Southwest Airlines 0.74 5.08%
Target Corporation 2.23 4.54%

1. Graph the NOPAT margin and NOA turnover for each of these companies. Do you see a pattern revealed that is similar to that shown in the text? Explain. (Note that the graph in the text is based on averages for selected industries. The graph for this problem uses fewer companies and, thus, will not be as smooth.)
2. Consider the trade-off between profit margin and asset turnover. How can we evaluate companies on this margin and turnover trade-off? Explain.
3. Do the RNOAs appear adequate to attract capital? Explain. If not, are there unique industry issues that exist in 2005 that might explain a temporary downturn in RNOA?

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