The reduction of 1,3-dimethyl-2-nitrobenzene to 2,6-dimethylaniline involves two steps. I am having difficulty balancing the equations, and I have no idea of the mechanism involved.
Ar(CH3)2 + SnCl2.2H2O +HCl --> Ar(CH3)2(+)Cl(-) + SnCl4 (step 1)
Ar(CH3)2(+)Cl(-) + KOH --> Ar(CH3)2NH2 (step 2)
I could also use help with the mechanisms of the following, using arrow notation if at all possible:
Ar(CH3)2NH2 + Cl-CH2CO-Cl --> Ar(CH3)2-NNHCOCH2-Cl
Ar(CH3)2-NHCOCH2-Cl + NH(CH2CH3)2 (diethylamine) --> Ar(CH3)2-NNHCOCH2-N(CH2CH3)2 (lidocaine)
This solution provides detailed explanations for the steps in synthesizing lidocaine.