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    Balanced equations for the various steps in synthesizing lidocaine

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    The reduction of 1,3-dimethyl-2-nitrobenzene to 2,6-dimethylaniline involves two steps. I am having difficulty balancing the equations, and I have no idea of the mechanism involved.
    Ar(CH3)2 + SnCl2.2H2O +HCl --> Ar(CH3)2(+)Cl(-) + SnCl4 (step 1)
    Ar(CH3)2(+)Cl(-) + KOH --> Ar(CH3)2NH2 (step 2)

    I could also use help with the mechanisms of the following, using arrow notation if at all possible:

    Ar(CH3)2NH2 + Cl-CH2CO-Cl --> Ar(CH3)2-NNHCOCH2-Cl

    and

    Ar(CH3)2-NHCOCH2-Cl + NH(CH2CH3)2 (diethylamine) --> Ar(CH3)2-NNHCOCH2-N(CH2CH3)2 (lidocaine)

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    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/reaction-stoichiometry/balanced-equations-for-the-various-steps-in-synthesizing-lidocaine-124934

    Solution Summary

    This solution provides detailed explanations for the steps in synthesizing lidocaine.

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