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Periodicity and Chemical Bonding

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1. How does ionization energy change as one proceeds

a) across the periodic table in a horizontal row

b) down the periodic table in a vertical group

Give an explanation for each answer.

2. Arrange the following atoms or ions in order of increasing radius:

Cl, S2-, K, K+, O

Give an explanation for the position of S2- in relation to the atom or ion that comes just before and just after it.

3. What is the relationship between first ionization energies and metallic and non-metallic properties?

4. Identify two repulsive forces and two attractive forces that influences the formation of chemical bonds between two atoms.

5. Which of these bonds is most polar and which is least: S-O, Cl-CL, or Cl-O? Justify the arrangement.

6. a) What is meant by octet structure?

b)What evidence indicates that octet structures might be more stable than others?

7. What is meant by co-ordinate covalent bond?

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1. How does ionization energy change as one proceeds

a) across the periodic table in a horizontal row

The first ionization energy is the minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated gaseous atom to form an ion with a +1 charge. Obviously, the noble gases have the highest first ionization energy because they are so stable and have a full octet or shell. Therefore, generally, ionization energy increases as you move from left to right across the row.

b) down the periodic table in a vertical group

Again, since smaller atoms are much harder to ionize because the electrons are closer to the nucleus, and are thus, bound tighter to the atom, first ionization energy tends to increase as you go down the period, i.e. to larger atoms. Therefore, if you go down a vertical group, you will have a decrease in ionization energy.

2. Arrange the following atoms or ions in order of increasing radius:

Cl, S2-, K, K+, O

Give an explanation for the position of S2- in relation to the atom or ion that comes just before and just after it.

Atomic radii decreases as you move from left to right across a row. It also decreases as you go up a column. So, let's start with Cl, K, and O. Clearly, oxygen is the smallest of the three. It is a much smaller atom than chlorine ...

Solution Summary

A number of questions on ionization and periodicity are answered here.

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Electrons and Charges

1. State the number of valence electrons for a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom.

2. State the number of valence electrons for a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom in a covalent bond.
Use the periodic table to predict an ionic charge for each of the following metal ions.

3. Be ion

4. Cs ion

5. Ga ion

6. Pb ion
Use the periodic table to predict the ionic charge for each of the following nonmetal ions.

7. I ion

8. S ion

9. Se ion

10. P ion
Write out the electron configuration for each of the following nonmetal ions.

11. Br -

12. O2-

13. Se2-

14. N 3-

15. What is the general trend in electronegativity across a series in the periodic table?

16. Which elements are more electronegative, semimetals of nonmetals?
State whether the representative particle in each of the following substances is an atom, a molecule, or a formula unit.

17. plutonium, Pu

18. ozone, O3

19. plutonium(III) oxide. Pu2O3

20. Explain why the radius of a chloride ion (0.181 nm) is about twice that of chlorine atom (0.099 m).

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