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    Covalent and Ionic Bonding

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    Research the answers to the following questions on the internet and write your answers in your own words. For each answer, include the address of the web site (or title and author of a book or article) that you used to help you answer the question.

    1. Which type of compound usually has higher melting points: ionic compounds or covalent compounds? What is the reason for this difference in melting points? (3 points)

    2. Do ionic compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points)
    1. Solids?
    2. Liquids?
    3. Aqueous solutions (when the ionic compounds are dissolved in water)?

    3. Do covalent compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points)
    1. Solids?
    2. Liquids?
    3. Aqueous solutions (when the covalent compounds are dissolved in water)?

    4. Explain the differences between ionic and covalent bonding that account for the differences in their melting points.

    5. In order to conduct an electrical current, a substance must have charged particle s (ions or electrons) that are free-moving (able to move about throughout the sample).

    6. Why do you think ionic compounds are not able to conduct electricity as solids, even though they can as liquids and in solution?

    7. why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does?

    Part II

    Molecular Model for your models of H2O, NH3, CH4, and CO2.
    1. Use the information from the lesson to determine the answers to the questions below.
    Conclusion:
    For each of your molecules, answer the following questions:
    1. Determine the electronegativity between the atoms of each molecule.
    2. Identify the bond as either ionic or covalent.
    3. State whether the molecule is polar or non polar.
    4. Identify the structure as having hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole moments or London dispersion forces (LDF).

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:53 pm ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/general-chemistry/covalent-ionic-bonding-615103

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    Covalent Bonding 3.6
    Research the answers to the following questions on the internet and write your answers in your own words. For each answer, include the address of the web site (or title and author of a book or article) that you used to help you answer the question.
    1. Which type of compound usually has higher melting points: ionic compounds or covalent compounds? What is the reason for this difference in melting points? (3 points)
    Ionic compounds have a higher melting point that covalent compounds. The molecules of an ionic compound have strong attractions to the ions in their vicinity, which high melting points in ionic solids. Whereas, covalent compounds have a very close as a solid, but doesn't have an attraction to the other molecules in the material (The information was found at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond2.html "Comparison of Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds").
    2. Do ionic compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points)
    1. Solids? No, ionic compounds don't conduct electricity, because there are no free electrons.
    2. Liquids? Yes, ionic compounds as a liquid will conduct electricity, because of the free electrons.
    3. Aqueous solutions (when the ionic compounds are dissolved in water)? Yes, ionic compounds will conduct electricity, because the dissociated ions in the solution will carry a charged (The information was found at http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/faq/properties-ionic-vs-covalent.shtml "What properties distinguish ionic compounds from covalent compounds?").
    3. Do covalent compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points)
    1. Solids? No, covalent compounds don't electricity, because there are no free electrons.
    2. Liquids? No, covalent compounds don't conduct electricity, because no electrons transfer is possible.
    3. Aqueous solutions (when the covalent compounds are dissolved in water)? No, covalent compounds don't conduct electricity, because they dissociate into ions (The information was found at http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/faq/properties-ionic-vs-covalent.shtml "What properties distinguish ionic compounds from covalent compounds?").
    4. Explain the differences between ionic and covalent bonding that account for the differences in their melting points.
    In ionic bonding, the positive and negative forces of attraction are very high and must be overcome in order for the compound to melt. In covalent bonding, the stable compounds have a very weak attraction between the molecules, which can be overcome at low temperatures (The information was found at http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/faq/properties-ionic-vs-covalent.shtml "What properties distinguish ionic compounds from covalent compounds?").
    5. In order to conduct an electrical current, a substance must have charged particle s (ions or electrons) that are free-moving (able to move about throughout the sample).
    That's correct and exists in ionic bonded compounds.
    6. Why do you think ionic compounds are not able to conduct electricity as solids, even though they can as liquids and in solution?
    As a solid compound, ionic compounds have a very crystalline form that is very hard and very brittle at the same time, but there are no free electrons available to conduct electricity (The information was found at http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/faq/properties-ionic-vs-covalent.shtml "What properties distinguish ionic compounds from covalent compounds?").
    7. Why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does?
    Tap water contains small amounts of metals such as calcium, magnesium or fluoride, which allows for conductivity with the free metal ions, whereas, pure or distilled water contains no free ions to conduct electricity.
    Part II
    Molecular Model for your models of H2O, NH3, CH4, and CO2.
    1. Use the information from the lesson to determine the answers to the questions below.
    Conclusion:
    For each of your molecules, answer the following questions:
    1. Determine the electronegativity between the atoms of each molecule.
    H2O = Electronegativity (EN) = higher EN - lower EN = ΔEN = 3.5 - 2.1 = 1.4 (The information was obtained at http://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/broderick10/SCH3U/electronegativity-elements-PPT-slides.pdf "Electronegativity")
    NH3 = ΔEN = 3.0 - 2.1 = 0.9
    CH4 = ΔEN = 2.5 - 2.1 = 0.4
    CO2 = ΔEN = 3.5 - 2.5 = 1.0
    2. Identify the bond as either ionic or covalent.
    H2O is covalent (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4 "Covalent Bonds")
    NH3 is covalent (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4 "Covalent Bonds")
    CH4 is covalent (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4 "Covalent Bonds")
    CO2 is covalent (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4 "Covalent Bonds")

    3. State whether the molecule is polar or non-polar.
    H2O is polar (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    NH3 is polar (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    CH4 is nonpolar (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    CO2 is polar (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    4. Identify the structure as having hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole moments or London dispersion forces (LDF).
    H2O has hydrogen bonding (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    NH3 has hydrogen bonding (The information was obtained at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c7 "Hydrogen Bonding")
    CH4 has London dispersion forces (The information was obtained at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/joshiv/handouts/PDF/Inter_Molecular_Forces_handout.pdf "Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, and Hydrogen Bonding")

    CO2 has London dispersion forces (The information was obtained at http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1515SP02/Lecture/Chapter12/Lec2602.html "Chaper12: Dispersion Forces and Hydrogen Bonding)

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:53 pm ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/general-chemistry/covalent-ionic-bonding-615103

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