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Ionic and Covalent Bonding

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Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding. Include the definition of anions and cations

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Solution Summary

Compares and contrasts two concepts: ionic and covalent bonding, providing a definition of each concept as well.

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Anion is a negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis. In contrast, a cation is an ion with positive charge. In or discussion below on ionic bonding and covalence bonding, anions and cations are referred to either as negative ions or positive ions respectively (http://www.answers.com/topic/cation-1?method=6).

Ionic Bonding
In contrast to covalence bonding, ionic bonding is between metals and non-metals. In contrast, also, in ionic bonding, metal atoms have a low number of valence electrons and a low electro-negativity. Non-metal atoms have numerous valence electrons. Ionic Bonding occurs if the electron clouds overlap (bond).

Lose valence electrons; achieve a stable valence shell (usually 8 e-); gains a positive charge, ie a positive ion (cation).

Na 2,8,1 -> Na+ 2,8
Li 2,1 -> Li+ 2
K 2,8,8,1 -> K+ 2,8,8
Mg 2,8,2 -> Mg2+ 2,8
Ca 2,8,8,2 -> Ca2+ 2,8,8
Al 2,8,3 -> Al3+ 2,8.
The charge is the number of valence e- it has to lose, eg Mg 2,8,2 loses 2 , Mg2+.

Gain valence electrons; achieve a stable valence shell (usually 8 e-)

F 2,7 -> F- 2,8
Cl 2,8,7 -> Cl- 2,8,8
Br 2,8,8,7 -> Br- 2,8,8,8
I 2,8,18,18,7 -> I- 2,8,18,18,8
O 2,6 -> O2- 2,8
S 2,8,6 -> S2- 2,8,8
N 2,5 -> N3- 2,8
P 2,8,5 -> P3- 2,8,8
H 1 -> H- 2.
The last three are less common.
The charge = 8 - Group number. eg, Nitrogen, Group 5, 8 - 5 = N3- .
Ionic Lattice
Positive and negative ions attract each other to form a three dimensional continuous lattice structure.
Each +ve ion is surrounded by a number of ...

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