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Each response must be 200 words in length.

1. Describe how probability samples differ from nonprobability samples, and discuss the advantages, disadvantages and uses of both.
2. Describe the various types of nonresponse errors and what can be done to reduce them.
3. List and describe the three options open to a researcher with respect to how to handle data quality issues.
4. Discuss the advantages of systematic sampling, and describe when you would use it.
5. What is the purpose of raw data inspection and what should a researcher be looking for?

#### Solution Preview

1.Describe how probability samples differ from nonprobability samples, and discuss the advantages, disadvantages and uses of both.

Probability sampling differs from nonprobability sampling in the fact that participants are chosen at random, whereas nonprobability sampling does not randomly select participants. Probability sampling gives every participant equal opportunity to be selected from the population, ensuring that the sample will be representative of the population (Keppel, 1991). When nonprobability sampling takes place and individuals are not randomly selected, this is called a quasi-experiment. Quasi-experiments are a form experimental research where individuals are not randomly assigned to groups (Creswell, 2007). The advantages of probability samplings include having a complete sampling framework, meaning the researcher has contact information for the entire population. The results can also be used as a generalization of the entire population. The disadvantage of probability sampling is it can be more expensive and time consuming. The advantages of nonprobability sampling are its useful when there isn't a comprehensive population list already available. The disadvantage to that is some participant groups are unavailable for selection, therefore a researcher may have no way of identifying the size and effect of the sampling error, i.e. missed participant, unequal representation, etc. Another advantage is that it can be effective when trying to generate ideas and feedback. The disadvantage to that is you cannot generalize the results to the entire population with confidence. The final advantage is its convenience and cost efficiency.

2.Describe the various types of nonresponse errors and what can be done to reduce them.

Nonresponse errors are one of the recognized survey errors in research. There are various reasons for nonresponse errors. First, a nonresponse error is simply when some respondents ...

#### Solution Summary

Research practices and skills are important for reliability of any study. The following information discusses processes of sampling in research, data handling, and how to avoid response errors.

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