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    Cultural Orientations

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    Orientation's implications to management

    Orientations
    What is the nature of evil?

    Good

    Evil

    Mixed

    Implication to Management
    A. Optimistic about other people's motivations; theory Y; participation encouraged; trust; direct communication valued.

    B. Pessimistic; theory X; suspicion of peers and subordinates, negotiation partners; secretive.

    C. Use of middlemen and consultants; a discrepancy between optimistic attitudes and behavior - for instance, the values of communication are proclaimed but every message is vetted by a lawyer.

    What is the person's relationship to nature?

    Dominant

    Harmony

    Subjugation.

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    Cultural Orientations

    Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck

    Introduction

    The comparative model designed by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) has been widely influential.

    It claims that members of a culture group exhibit constant 'orientations' toward the world and other people.

    Different cultures may be compared on the basis of their different orientations.

    The model distinguishes six basic orientations, which reveal the target culture group's perceptions of human conditions, and presents a range of variations, or possible, in response to it.

    Orientation's implications to management

    Orientations
    What is the nature of evil?

    Good

    Evil

    Mixed

    Implication to Management
    A. Optimistic about other people's motivations; theory Y; participation encouraged; trust; direct communication valued.

    B. Pessimistic; theory X; suspicion of peers and subordinates, negotiation partners; secretive.

    C. Use of middlemen and consultants; a discrepancy between optimistic attitudes and behavior - for instance, the values of communication are proclaimed but every message is vetted by a lawyer.

    What is the person's relationship to nature?

    Dominant

    Harmony

    Subjugation

    Control and planning; imposing one's will on the natural environment and on the business environment, working to mould the organizational culture.

    Coexistence; search for common ground; aversion to open conflict within the workplace; respect for different others.

    Fatalism: ready acceptance of external control; aversion to independent planning; pessimism ...

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