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    Six buyer-readiness stages

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    Johanna Ibrahim is a director of marketing communications for a manufacturing company that wants consumers to replace their gasoline-powered gardening tools with the company's electricity-powered ones. Using the hierarchy of effects model, explain what she should do at each of the six buyer-readiness stages.

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    Hierarchy of Effects represents the six stages a buyer goes through in moving toward a purchase (Buyer readiness), each defining a possible goal or effect of promotion [1].

    1. Awareness: Here, the seller's effort is on making the buyer aware of the product or the brand. The objective is to build familiarity with the product. This approach is used when the product is new or being relaunched in the market.

    2. Knowledge: Going beyond awareness, it takes the consumer one step further in learning about the product, its features, benefits, etc.

    3. Liking: This refers to how the market feels about the product. Here, promotion is used to make the shift from knowledge to liking.

    4. Preference: Customers have plenty of brands to choose from. This stage involves distinguishing your brand from others so ...