Explore BrainMass

Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice (IJ)

How does Interactional Justice (IJ) differ from Procedural Justice? Also, why is IJ critical to retaining quality employees today?

Solution Preview

Please refer to file response attached, which is also presented below. I hope this helps and good luck with your continued studies.

1. How does Interactional Justice (IJ) differ from Procedural Justice?

Research linking employee fairness perceptions to positive individual and organisational outcomes is gathering increasing interest. Fairness has been conceptualized in terms of three types of 'organisational justice', which relate to many aspects of the design and implementation of HR systems. (The first two are the most interesting and also impact on the third, so will be explored further later.)

Procedural justice (PJ) refers to perceptions of fairness in the procedures used to make the decisions. Procedural Justice therefore refers to satisfaction with a system - selection, promotion, pay, and appraisal ( PJ evaluates how people judge the fairness of social-decision-making procedures (Lind and Earley, 1992).

Distributive justice (DJ) is about employee evaluation of outcome fairness (Price and Mueller, 1986; Greenberg, 1987b, 1990; McFarlin and Sweeney, 1992). In other words, DJ refers to people's beliefs about the fairness of outcomes - a selection, promotion or pay decision. Two important factors relate to DJ. a) Equity - whether the decision is deserved based on past success, experience and qualifications: b) Equality - whether the individual feels they had the same chance as others to be successful. (

Interactive justice (IJ) refers to people's beliefs about the fairness with which they have been treated by authority figures - the HR department, assessors, and appraisers. It relates to people's perception of how they were treated, the way they felt, and the views they hold about the people who manage the system. IJ is a distinct and intermediate step between the enactment of organisational procedures and the resulting outcome (Bies and Moag, 1986; Mikula et al., 1989). It arises from belief in sincerity, respectfulness and consistency of authority figures. ( Interpersonal rather than structural attributes pertain to interactive justice, and distinguish it from procedural justice (Schappe, 1995). Thus, employees may dislike their work assignment (DJ), but believe the system for assigning work is fair (PJ) and believe that within the rules and system, they have been fairly treated (IJ).
Procedure Justice and Distributive Justice

PJ decisions are a potent determinant of obedience to group rules and laws, and the extent to which managers using the procedure are seen as ...

Solution Summary

This solution explains how Interactional Justice (IJ) differs from Procedural Justice, and why IJ is critical to retaining quality employees today.