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Organizational Structure and the Decision-Making Process

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Q 1. What is the relationship between organizational structure and the decision-making process? Provide examples. Document your ideas with Peer Reviewed articles that you have read.

Please use this as a reference with one quote from the article:

Fredrickson, J. W. (1986). The Strategic Decision Process and Organizational Structure. Academy Of Management Review, 11(2), 280-297. doi:10.5465/AMR.1986.4283101

Q 2 Provide examples of when an organization would consider organizational change. (Exhibit 8-10 Ch. 8, see below) What challenges to cultural awareness might you encounter when attempting to drive organizational change? Document your ideas with Peer Reviewed articles(articles) that you have read.

EXHIBIT 8-10 When Is Change Needed?40(below)
? A change in the size of the corporation?due to growth, consolidation, or reduction
? A change in key individuals?which may alter management objectives, interests,
and abilities
? A failure to meet goals, capitalize on opportunities, or be innovative
? An inability to get things done on time
? A consistently overworked top management that spends excessive hours on the job
? A belief that costs are extravagant or that budgets are not being met
? Morale problems
? Lengthy hierarchies that inhibit the exercise of strategic control
? Planning that has become increasingly staff-driven and is thus divorced from line
management
? Innovation that is stifled by too much administration and monitoring of details
? Uniform solutions that are applied to nonuniform situations. The extreme opposite of this
condition?when things that should or could function in a routine manner do not?should
also be heeded as a warning. In other words, management by exception has replaced
standard operating procedures
The following are a few specific indicators of international organizational malaise:
? A shift in the operational scope?perhaps from directing export activities to controlling
overseas manufacturing and marketing units, a change in the size of operations on a
country, regional, or worldwide basis, or failure of foreign operations to grow in
accordance with plans and expectations.
? Clashes among divisions, subsidiaries, or individuals over territories or customers in
the field
? Divisive conflicts between overseas units and domestic division staff or corporate staff
? Instances wherein centralization leads to a flood of detailed data that is neither fully
understood nor properly used by headquarters
? Duplication of administrative personnel and services
? Underutilization of overseas manufacturing or distribution facilities
? Duplication of sales offices and specialized sales account executives
? Proliferation of relatively small legal entities or operating units within a country
or geographic area
? An increase in overseas customer service complaints
? Breakdowns in communications within and among organizations
? Unclear lines of reporting and dotted-line relationships, and ill-defined executive
responsibilities

Please use this article as a reference with a quote.

Van de Ven, A. H., & Sun, K. (2011). Breakdowns in Implementing Models of Organization Change. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 25(3), 58-74. doi:10.5465/AMP.2011.63886530.

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Question 1
The theory that a firm's organizational structure has a direct impact on its decision making process is young relative to other human resource and strategic management dogmas. According to the study of Fredrickson (1986) on the synthesis and integration of various pervious works on the relationship of structure and strategic process, reveals that before the importance of this relationship became obvious and made part of competitive advantages of a firm, how an organization organizes itself and its units was more of reactionary. This means that changes in its operating environment has to happen first, before the company realigns its structure to correspond with these changes such as "major increases in unit volume" (fredrickson, 1986, p. 281.
Fredrickson goes on to specifically link the general dimensions of structure - centralization, formalization ...

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Organizational Learning and Decision-Making: Interviewing

Organizational Learning and Decision-Making

- Resources: Rules of the Road for Interviewing

- Research an organization or subset of an organization (i.e. department or division) (Credit Suisse Group www.credit-suisse.com ) and analyze their processes of decision-making and learning initiatives.

- Use Rules of the Road for Interviewing on the below as a guide to conduct at least two interviews of current employees to gather primary data about the organization

- Write an essay based on the analysis of your interview and research.

- Address the following within the organization:

o Models of decision making the organization currently uses
o Efficiency of the managerial decision-making processes currently in place
o Presence or absence of explorative and exploitative organizational learning
o Level of involvement managers have in encouraging organizational learning
o Use of knowledge management systems and the integration of information technology in the organization
o Cognitive structures and biases

- Critique the organization based on the above areas using a minimum of five peer-reviewed references to support your conclusions.

- Include the interview questions and responses as an appendix with your essay.

- Format your paper according to APA standards.

Note. Do not disclose the name of the organization or the name of the people interviewed for this assignment.

Rules of the Road for Interviewing

Prior to the interview

1. Select the individuals for the interviews. Brief the interviewees and frame the interview. Explain the interview structure, time commitment, and your purpose. Provide context for the interview, i.e. this is an academic assignment required for a graduate course in Organizational Theory and Design.

2. Assure the interviewees that their information is confidential and that no names are included in the data collection and feedback. All information is kept confidential, and you have an ethical obligation to maintain your commitment after this work is done.

3. Once the interviewee has agreed to the interview, arrange for a private space, and set time, date, and appropriate location for each of the interviews.

4. Prepare for the interviews by completing a substantial portion of your research. You must have background knowledge about your topic and the organization in order ask appropriate questions.

During the interview

1. The first few minutes of an interview are critical; interviewees will not usually talk freely with a stranger. Begin by getting acquainted. Prior knowledge of the organization is helpful in this situation.

2. Brief the interviewee, frame the interview, and reinforce the confidentiality aspect of the interview. Depending on the lag between setting up and conducting the interview, providing the framework at the start of the interview helps put the interviewee at ease.

3. Have a clean sheet of paper and pen in hand to take notes. Be sure not to write the interviewee's name on the paper.

4. Remember that an interview is a focused conversation and not an interrogation. Your goal is to understand the interviewee's perspective on the topic at hand.

5. At first, read the questions exactly as you have them written. After the interviewee has had a chance to respond, you can probe more deeply about additional topics that aid your research. You can do this by stating, "Tell me more about..."

6. Do more listening than talking. You want to avoid interjecting your opinion, sharing your thoughts or perspectives. Remember, your goal is to gain a better understanding of the organization from the interview.

7. When the interview is over, debrief the interviewee by reviewing key points and ask them if there is anything else they want to add. Remember to thank the interviewee. Offer to provide anonymous feedback and a written summary, if desired.

After the interview

1. After the interviewee leaves, review your notes immediately and clarify or add to your writings as needed. It is easy to get caught up in the act of interviewing and forget to write everything you need. Take additional notes while the memories are fresh.

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