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    Negotiation Procesws

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    *What are the fundamental phases of pre-negotiations?

    *What are the Individual Characteristics of Negotiators, presented by the authors?

    *Which of them, in your eyes, is most crucial to the success of a negotiation session?

    *"Those who are skilled in combat do not become angered, Those who are skilled at winning do not become afraid, Thus the wise win before they fight, while the ignorant fight to win". -Zhuge Liang (third-century Chinese military strategist). Is this an accurate observation?

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    Interesting topic!

    Have you read the article yet? It is very informative and interesting.

    Briefly, your paper can be organized around the four questions, which acts as a tentative outline for your paper. However, if this is an academic paper, which it seems to be, you will also include an Introduction (e.g. introduce topic and include a thesis or purpose statement: The purpose of this paper is to describe...) and Conclusion (e.g. restate thesis or purpose statement in slightly different words, and tie up main points you made in your paper).

    Now let's look at the four questions drawing on the attached article:

    1. What are the fundamental phases of pre-negotiations?

    According to the article, pre-negotiation is the first phase of the negotiation process referred to as the antecedent phase. Specifically, the negotiation process is divided into three phases: the antecedent phase (in which the new pre-negotiation planning and preparation component resides), the concurrent phase, and the consequent phase. This approach, according to the authors, was posited by Graham (1987) and it is argued that it is the sum and substance for researching business-to-business negotiation in the marketing domain.

    According to the article attached, the pre-negotiation phase includes many behaviors and activities that have four common themes: 1) Intelligence gathering, 2) Formulation, 3) Strategy, and 4) Preparation.

    (1) Intelligence Gathering

    Intelligence gathering is the act of collecting, processing, analyzing and evaluating available data concerning the other party and relevant environmental factors (U.S. Army Field Manual, 1993). true for business negotiations. According to the authors, the value of gathering accurate intelligence cannot be overemphasized. Understanding market conditions, future trends, and how such issues will affect each party is only the first step. Information on the other participants involved in the negotiation should be a priority as well. The authors suggest a number of avenues exist for information collection, including (1) internal reports, (2) trade publications, (3) employees in your (or other) firm(s), or (4) annual or lOK reports.

    According to the article, this phase is often considered most important by negotiators since it provides a foundation for all future decisions and recommendations. "One particular negotiation team found the key to its success when it learned from the l OK that the other side's CEO received a $100,000 bonus for each 1% increase in return on share holders' equity (ROSE). From that point on all proposed options were presented in terms of their impact on ROSE. Amazingly, most of the CEO's own team members were not aware that ROSE was the primary target for their boss."

    (2) Formulation

    In the formulation phase, it is about taking efforts targeted at deciding what issues are relevant to the encounter. Among the most important activities are setting limit levels (realistic, ...

    Solution Summary

    In reference to the negotiation process and the article, this soltuion answers the four questions on various aspects of the negotiation process e.g. the fundamental phases of pre-negotiations, individual characteristics of negotiators, presented by the authors, most crucial to the success of a negotiation session. It also debates this statement: *"Those who are skilled in combat do not become angered, Those who are skilled at winning do not become afraid, Thus the wise win before they fight, while the ignorant fight to win".