The solution is in the form of an extensive essay of about 2,500 words discussing the following questions & concerns:
1. What, in your opinion, are the primary issues facing efforts to establish a democracy in Iraq? Defend your position.
2. What are some of the conspiracy theories that have arisen from the attacks of 9/11?
3. Do you believe the response that the United States has taken since September 11th goes far enough to combat terrorism? What would you do differently? What would you keep the same?
4. Discuss the evolution of emergency management in the United States from the civil defense days in the 1950s to homeland security in the 21st century.
5. Summary/discussion of terrorism, emergency management, conspiracy theories & the war on terror.
Attached is the word version of the solution for easy printing. Essay-solution is written in APA format with an extensive list of references from printed materials & the web to easily expand the ideas provided.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 15, 2020, 3:39 pm ad1c9bdddf
Establishing Democracy in Iraq
"The Quran invokes five rights to which everyone is entitled: the right to justice; the right to freedom of belief and speech; the right to wealth; the right to security; and the right to power. It is this right to power which relates to modern conceptions of democracy."
- Ahmed Mansour, 2002
Democracy is that form of government where the power is held by the people according to an electoral system. Democracy for many worldwide meant freedom from oppression & restriction. For democracy wars were fought & millions of lives shed to fight for it or against it. Democracy is the battle cry of the Free World against tyranny & corruption and through the years, what it meant to so many has evolved and changed that since the day it was conceived as a concept in the minds of the likes of John Locke, the idea that 'every man was born equal' has come to symbolize the meaning of 'true justice' not only in the West but throughout the world. Call it normative ethics, it is however something that everyone can accept and relate to: the weak equal to the strong, the rich equal to the poor, no one above or below when it comes to choosing a manner of social order to govern a country, a culture and a people. Ideally, this is the case. History however imbeds upon a people a way of thinking as much as tradition & faith has relegated certain people to roles in Society. While Republicanism, Democracy & its Socialist adaptation can work in the US and Europe, adaptation of democracy into other nations requires 'tweaking' to make it go with their culture and beliefs. Take for instance Thailand. The Buddhist country had to adopt democracy into a culture & tradition that saw the King as its source of moral compass & power in a country where the divide between the rich and the poor is so high. Now as it stands, the rich & the conservative groups want change in governance but the poor whose votes are more numerous oppose them. The Conservatives believe that they have the interest of the country at heart because they know better, at least in terms of choosing how to govern their nation & the poor feel oppressed by that very notion therefore giving their support to the duly elected prime minister that the Conservatives have managed to outmanoeuvre by politicking. It is here where the essence of democracy stands. The agreement must be according to what is popular and accepted by the members of the state, not only that which is held by a minority or a few.
Now, Iraq had been under Saddam Hussein's dictatorship for decades when he was one of the strongmen that controlled the Middle East. In his time, he & his cronies can dictate society to be as they see fit as it moulds to their beliefs, interests & values. In the US & Europe, it is the Constitution, the agreement between all the citizens of the nation & its tenets that empower governments. The Constitution is above all the source of power for those who rule. When Saddam ruled, HE was the source of power. He moralizes according to what he believed; even when he uses the tenets of Islam, like the Ayatollah he chooses what the use & how to justify his actions. His fall left a power vacuum that divided power among so many with varied degrees of loyalty to the actual Iraqi constitution & its ideals. It is to this very day, about jockeying positions - who in the end is the strong man that will replace Saddam. The idea that every Iraqi has the right to choose who they want to lead them and how the country should be run is a foreign concept. Tradition & history show that this former Persian territory had always been held together by strongmen who lorded over the weak & less powerful who submit to that will for the purpose of survival. I believe that in order for democracy to rule, a constitution approved by the people, something that every Iraqi - man, woman & child can identify with and will respect and turn to as the 'heart that empowers their nation, an agreement on how to live together' must be in place. They must be willing to defend this and must come into agreement how to treat each other in a manner by which respect and equality is the root. This is hard primarily because Iraqis are used to submitting to others who can offer protection. Add to that the divide between the Shia & the Sunnis and the tribal divisions that they share with the likes of the Kurds. The power vacuum has given rise to empower once less known warlords & clerics that, advised by their own interests in gaining power have not allowed for their people to practice the freedom to live in peace. Varied players equate to conflict especially since mistrust is at the heart of it: each strongman & mistrusts the other for fear of losing out. Militias are armed and the Al-Qaeda & radical terrorists take advantage of the social divide to further their own causes. The result: the new 'wild west' where tensions run high and keeping order requires guns & the military. I believe that democracy is possible in Iraq but all these factors must be considered in order to arrive at a strategy that would allow for the empowerment of ordinary Iraqis. The bridge I believe ...
The solution is an extensive discussion in the form of 5 essays, worded between 500-1000 words tackling each of the questions (see long description) as separate topics of discussion. Each essay-answer is written in APA format, fully referenced for the purpose of additional research and expansion.