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The Burke-Litwin Causal Model Of Organizational Performance

The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and .Change (B-L Model), was developed by George H. Litwin and later refined by W. Warner Burke in the late 1980's. This model includes several key features: twelve theoretical constructs (i.e., organizational variables), distinguishes between the culture and the climate of an organization, distinguishes between transformational and transactional dynamics, specifies the nature and direction of influence of organizational variables, and based on previous models, empirical studies, and organizational development practice.

The B-L Model identifies twelve organizational variables as the external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, structure, management practices, systems, work unit climate, task requirements and individual skills, motivation, individual needs and values, and individual and organizational performance. With representation of the external environment as a variable, it should be apparent that the open systems theory underlies this model. The external environment variable is the input into the system, with the individual and organizational performance variable representing the output. The external environment includes exterior conditions or situations that influence the performance of the organization.

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INTRODUCTION

The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and .Change (B-L Model), was developed by George H. Litwin and later refined by W. Warner Burke in the late 1980's. (Burke, 1992) This model includes several key features: twelve theoretical constructs (i.e., organizational variables), distinguishes between the culture and the climate of an organization, distinguishes between transformational and transactional dynamics, specifies the nature and direction of influence of organizational variables, and based on previous models, empirical studies, and organizational development practice.

The B-L Model identifies twelve organizational variables as the external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, structure, management practices, systems, work unit climate, task requirements and individual skills, motivation, individual needs and values, and individual and organizational performance. With representation of the external environment as a variable, it should be apparent that the open systems theory underlies this model. The external environment variable is the input into the system, with the individual and organizational performance variable representing the output. The external environment includes exterior conditions or situations that influence the performance of the organization.

ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

Leadership

Leadership is the executive conduct that gives direction and encourages others to take needed action, and includes executive practices and values in view of followers and the role modeling of leaders.

Mission and Strategy

Mission and strategy of the organization is the senior leader's belief and declaration. This variable is where the organization states how it plans to achieve its purpose.

Culture

Culture is the organizations collection of explicit and implicit norms, values, and beliefs that directs its organizational behavior, and which is strongly influenced by past experiences, customs, and practices.

Management Practices

Management Practices are the normal line of events within the human and material resources that enable an organization to carry out their strategy.

Structure

Structure is the arrangement of functions and people of an organization into particular units and chains of command, decision-making authority, communication, and relationships to execute their ...

Solution Summary

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