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Analysis of Burke-Litwin Variables for Starbucks

Read: Burke, W.W. & Litwin, G.H. (1992) A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545.


The Burke-Litwin is a complicated model and is, perhaps, too big for an analysis of this size. For that reason, I would urge you to limit your analysis to those transactional variables they identify in the article.

Using StarBucks Coffee apply these variables:

Tasks and Skills
Management practices
Systems and Policies
Work unit climate
Individual needs and goals

Identify the key throughput variables and discuss how they are interrelated. Focus on whether they fit together or work toward opposite ends. For example, does the Human Resource System staff the organization with workers who have the right skills for the requirements of the production system? Does the compensation system quash motivation or the climate support individual needs and goals? Does the structure fit management practices?

Please help identify these variables for Starbucks and how they fit together.

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The response addresses the queries posted in 1488 words with references.

//Before lettering about the variables of the BL model; first, we should know about the features of the model. It will help to know the importance of the model. We will also gain knowledge regarding the development of this model. It has several features, but I am including only some key features. For example:\

Burke- Litwin Model

(Academic Leadership Development, 2004)

The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and .Change (B-L Model), was developed by Litwin which was later refined by Burke in the late 1980's (Burke & Litwin, 1992). This model includes several key features

? It includes twelve theoretical constructs (i.e., organizational variables)

? It distinguishes between the culture and the climate of an organization

? It distinguishes between transformational and transactional dynamics

? It specifies the nature and direction of influence of organizational variables

? It is based on previous models, empirical studies, and OD practice

//Above, we discussed the development of the BL model and its important features. As per the direction, now we will further elucidate about the different variable of this model. To start this, first, I will give the general introduction about the variables and then explain all of them, one by one.\

The twelve organizational variables in the B-L Model are external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, structure, management practices, systems, work unit climate, task requirements and individual skills, motivation, individual needs and values, and individual and organizational performance. With the representation of the external environment as a variable, it is evident that open systems theory underlies the B-L Model. The external environment variable is considered to be the input to the system with the individual and organizational performance variable representing the output. External Environment includes exterior condition or situation that influences the performance of the organization.

Organizational performance variable


Leadership is the executive conduct that gives direction and encourages others to take needed action and it also includes executive practices and values in view of followers and the role modeling of leaders.

Mission and Strategy

Mission and strategy of the organization is the top manager's belief and their declaration. It is the medium through which the organization plans to achieve its purpose in the due course of time.


The collection of explicit and implicit norms, values, and beliefs that ...

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