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Viruses, Bacteria, Diseases Discussed

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41. Describe general characteristics of picornaviruses.
42. Define plaque, lawn of bacteria.
43. Define normal and transient microbiota.
44. Compare commensalism, mutualism, symbiosis, and parasitism, and give an example of each.
45. List Koch's postulates and the exceptions.
46. Categorize diseases according to frequency of occurrence.
47. Identify the principal portals of entry, know which is the preferred.
48. Differentiate sign, symptoms, and syndrome.
49. Describe the primary characteristics of microbial antagonism.
50. Define, and give examples of, zoonosis.

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41. Describe general characteristics of picornaviruses.

Picornaviruses contain a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. The RNA alone is infectious; although less so than if contained within the capsid of the virus. The capsid is icosahedral.

Like human mRNA, the genome has a poly A tail at its 3' end, but unlike human mRNA, the genome doesn't have a 5' cap. Instead, it has a virally encoded protein known as VPg.

Examples of picornaviruses are: Enteroviruses (including Poliovirus), Rhinovirus (cause of the common cold), and Hepatovirus.

42. Define plaque, lawn of bacteria.

A bacterial lawn appears on a petri-dish agar plate when all of the original colonies of bacteria merge together to form a solid field of bacteria.

When the bacterial lawn is exposed to a bacteriophage or antibiotics, the exposed bacteria cells die. The clear (usually round) patch of lysed/dead cells in the bacterial lawn is known as a plaque.

43. Define normal and transient microbiota.

Microbiota is microbial flora harbored by healthy individuals (i.e. they are not microbes that make you sick). Some (the "normal" ones) are regularly found on their host species (I'm assuming we're talking about humans), and if disturbed they will reestablish themselves. Others (the ...

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The solution contains answers to 10 review questions related to viruses, bacteria, microbes, and disease.

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Biotechnology Living Organism Processes


Biotechnology allows the use of living organisms or their processes for human needs or purposes. Currently, this topic includes such general examples as cloning, stem cells (adult, umbilical cord, and embryonic), DNA fingerprinting, biological warfare, bioremediation, genetically modified organisms, vaccines, and transgenic plants and animals to name a few. In this assignment, you will explore specific examples of biotechnology applications.

Assignment details

Part 1

Biotechnology is the use of a living thing or any part of a living thing to make a product or process that improves human life. For this assignment, discuss the following:
•What are some of the examples of biotechnology that have made improvements to your life?
•Describe how 1 of these has made your life better.

Part 2

In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food derived from cloned animals. In addition, these products will not need to be labeled as "cloned" or "from clones" (Black, 2008). The FDA explains that you will not be eating the clone itself. It takes thousands of dollars to clone a food animal such as a cow or pig. Animals that are cloned for improved food production will be used for a breeding program to produce many offspring with the desirable traits for increased meat or milk yield. These offspring of the clones will be fair game for food. Discuss the following:
•Do you think there are differences between a clone and a "normal" animal?
•How do you feel about eating a cloned animal?
•Is your opinion of eating a cloned plant different?

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