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Mitochondrial Membrane and Free Release Energy

The difference in pH between the internal and external surfaces of the inner mitochondrial membrane is 1.4 pH units (external side acidic). If the membrane potential is assumed to be 0.06 V (inside negative) what is the free energy released upon transporting 1 mol of protons back across the membrane? How many protons must be transported to provide enough free energy for the synthesis of 1 mol of ATP (assume standard biochemical conditions)?

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This in-depth handwritten solution contains step-by-step calculations as well as explanations to determine free energy released in transporting 1 mol of protons and how many protons must be transported for the synthesis of 1 mol of ATP.

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