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    A. nutrition B. infections C. prescription drug
    D. alcohol
    E. cocaine f. cigarette smoke G. anti-acne drugs
    H. all of the preceding threats

    1. About 60-70 percent of newborns of these women have FAS.
    2. In the case of rubella, there is a 50 percent chance of some organs won't form properly.
    3. In cases of exposure to the second-hand type, children were smaller, died of more postdelivery complications, and had twice as many heart abnormalities.
    4. Increasing B-complex intake of the mother before conception and during early pregnancy reduces the risk that an embryo will develop severe neural tube defects.
    5. The "crack" type disrupts nervous system development of a child.
    6. Teratogens.
    7. Women who used the tranquilizer thalidomide during the first trimester gave birth to infants with missing or severely deformed arms and legs.
    8. A pregnant woman must eat enough so that her body weight increases by 20 - 25 pounds, on average.
    9. Reduced brain and head size, mental retardation, facial deformities, poor growth and poor coordination, and often heart defects.
    10. Without attention to it, repercussions on intelligence and other neural functions can occur later in life.
    11. Vaccination before pregnancy can prevent it.
    12. Tetracycline and streptomycin are used.

    Matching: Match the correct answer for the term listed.
    1. labor A. the portion of an individual's lifespan before birth.
    2. the "water" of birth B. surviving long enough to produce offspring
    3. afterbaby blues C. amniotic fluid
    4. lactation D. result of collective processes of the breakdown of cell structure and function; leads to structural changes and gradual loss of body functions.
    5. breast cancer E. term for the birth process or delivery.
    6. prenatal F. milk production occurring in the mammary glands in the mother's breasts.
    7. postnatal G. the portion of an individual's lifespan after birth.
    8. aging H. an aging disorder caused by a mutation of the gene coding for helicase, an enzyme effective in DAN replication and repair.
    9. Werner's syndrome I. Postpartum depression of new mothers.
    10. Evolutionary reproductive J. Obesity, high cholesterol, and high estrogen levels contribute to
    Success this undesirable cellular transformation.

    Matching: Match the correct answer for the term listed.
    1. abstinence A. a flexible, dome-shaped device inserted into the vagina and positioned over the cervix before intercourse; 84% effective.
    2. rhythm method B. progestin injections or implants that inhibit ovulation; 95-96% effective.
    3. withdrawal C. cauterizing or cutting and tying off a woman's oviducts; extremely effective.
    4. douching D. rinsing the vagina with a chemical right after intercourse; next to useless.
    5. vasectomy E. thin, tight-fitting sheaths worn over the penis during intercourse; 85-93% effective.
    6. tubal ligation F. avoiding intercourse during a woman's fertile period; 74% effective.
    7. spermicidal foam
    and jelly G. the morning-after pill that interferes with hormones that control events between ovulation and implantation; use is still controversial in the United States.
    8. diaphragm H. cutting and tying off each vas deferens of a man; extremely effective.

    9. condoms I. an oral contraceptive made of synthetic estrogens and progestins that suppress oocyte maturation and ovulation; 94% effective.
    10. birth control pill J. no sexual intercourse; foolproof.
    11. Depo-Provera and
    Norplant K. removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation; an ineffective method.
    12. Preven, RU-486
    (or Mifeprex) L. chemicals toxic to sperm are transferred from an applicator into the vagina just before intercourse; 82-83% effective.
    13. IUDs M. coils inserted into the uterus by a physician; sometimes invite pelvic inflammatory disease.

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