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    Differences between many biological terms

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    Compare and define:

    1. ascospores / conidia
    2. lichens / endophytes
    3. poikilohydric / rhizoids
    4. gametophyte / sporophyte
    5. coelom / radial symmetry
    6. Annelida / Platyhelminthes
    7. Malpighian tubules / metanephridia
    8. African Emergence Hypothesis / Multiregional Hypothesis
    9. mycorrhizas / root nodules
    10. small intestine / large intestine

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    1. Ascospores/conidia
    Conidia - tips of specialized hyphae, haploid, spores for wind dispersal (asexual)
    Ascospores - haploid mycelia of opposite mating strains fuse and develop spores within an ascus (sexual)

    2. Lichens/endophytes
    Endophytes are organisms, often fungi and bacteria, that live between living plant cells. The relationship that they establish with the plant varies from symbiotic to bordering on pathogenic.
    A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship.

    3. poikilohydric/rhizoids
    Poikilohydry is the capacity to tolerate dehydration to low cell or tissue water content and to recover from it without physiological damage. This condition occurs in such organisms as the lichens and bryophytes that lack mechanisms, such as a waterproofing cuticle and stomata that can help to prevent desiccation.
    Rhizoid, a short, thin filament found in fungi and in certain plants and sponges that anchors the growing (vegetative) body of the organism to a substratum and that is capable of absorbing nutrients. In fungi, the rhizoid is found in the thallus and resembles a root. It may serve either as a feeding organ (Rhizopus) or to anchor the thallus to its substratum (Chytridium). In plants, such as liverworts and mosses (division Bryophyta), rhizoids attach the gametophyte to the substratum and facilitate the absorption of minerals and water.

    4. gametophyte / sporophyte
    A gametophyte is the haploid multicellular stage in the alternation of generations life cycle of plants and algae. It develops from a spore by mitotic cell division. Spores are the products of meiosis in sporophytes. Gametophytes produce haploid gametes by mitosis.
    A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga. It develops from the zygote produced when a haploid egg cell is fertilized by a haploid sperm and each sporophyte cell therefore has a double set of chromosomes, one set from each parent.

    5. coelom / radial symmetry
    Triploblasts contain three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm).
    The endoderm becomes the digestive and respiratory tracts; the ectoderm becomes the outer epithelial covering of the body surface and the central nervous system; and the mesoderm becomes all muscle tissues, connective tissues, and most other organs.
    Triploblasts can be further categorized into those without a coelom (acoelomates), those with a true coelom (eucoelomates), and those with "false" coeloms (pseudocoelomates).
    Source: Boundless. "Animal Characterization Based on Features of Embryological Development." Boundless Biology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/introduction-to-animal-diversity-27/features-used-to-classify-animals-163/animal-characterization-based-on-features-of-embryological-development-635-11857/

    Animals with radial ...

    Solution Summary

    Question is about the differences of many different biological terms