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Nitrogen excretion rate and oxygen consumption

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What physiological states or traits (eg. feeding, exercise, aestivation) may affect the nitrogen excretion rate and oxygen consumption in the goldfish?

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The nitrogen excretion rate is directly proportional to the level of oxygen available in the environment. Such that, during a decline of environmental oxygen, the contribution of the liver to total ammonia production seems to be lowered, while that of skeletal muscles is increased.
Anaerobic ...

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The expert examines nitrogen excretion rate and oxygen consumptions. The affects of nitrogen excretion is given.

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Advanced Physiology

1) If the atmospheric pressure is 752 mm Hg, and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 593 mm Hg, the partial pressure of oxygen would be
A. 160 mm Hg
B. 257 mm Hg
C. 159 mm Hg
D. 79 mm Hg

2) In nonstrenuous circumstances, after "unloading" oxygen at tissue capillaries, hemoglobin normally remains approximately
A. 25% saturated with oxygen
B. 50% saturated with oxygen
C. 60% saturated with oxygen
D. 75% saturated with oxygen
E. nearly 100% saturated with oxygen

3) The alveolar cells in the lungs are lined with a layer of water molecules. This layer
A. often causes lung collapse due to surface tension
B. helps keep the lungs expanded and resists collapse
C. must contain surfactant to increase surface tension
D. must contain surfactant to reduce surface tension

4) The reason air does not flow in or out of the lungs at rest is that the
A. alveolar pressure is 4 mm Hg
B. intrapleural pressure is 4 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure
C. transpulmonary pressure is 0 mm Hg
D. intrapleural pressure and transpulmonary pressure are of equal but opposite value to each other which results in a alveolar pressure of 0 mm Hg

5) Which of the following is correct about ventilation rates compared to partial pressure of carbon dioxide
A. an increase in alveolar Pco2 implies hypoventilation
B. an increase in alveolar Pco2 implies hyperventilation
C. a decrease in alveolar Pco2 implies hypoventilation
D. Pco2 is not related to hyper- or hypoventilation

6) Characteristics of coma include
A. a sustained loss of the capacity for motor response
B. a sustained loss of the capacity for arousal
C. sleep-wake cycles remaining but less frequent
D. outward expression of mental function remaining, but is reduced
E. none of the above

7) Which of the following neurotransmitters plays a role in brainstem centers for alternating states of consciousness
A. serotonin
B. dopamine
C. acetylcholine
D. all of the above

8) The primary motor cortex and premotor areas
A. are the prime initiators of movement
B. contain only interneurons for the various reflex arcs
C. are located deep within the brain
D. are important relay and integrative stations but not prime initiators of movement

9) Effective therapy for behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and manic behavior often involve treatment that
A. alters neurotransmitter function in the brain
B. modifies the basic structure of the brain
C. alters the nature of action potentials in neurons
D. alters the blood supply to the brain

10) The region of the brain that compares information about what muscles should be doing versus what they actually are doing is the
A. cerebrum
B. cerebellum
C. brain stem
D. sensorimotor cortex

11) The initial defect in Parkinson's disease is due to degeneration of neurons in the
A. basal ganglia
B. dopamine receptors
C. substantia nigra
D. sensorimotor cortex

12) Memory is located in or throughout
A. just one part of the brain, the cerebrum
B. several parts of the brain depending upon the type of memory, including spinal cord
C. several parts of the brain depending upon the type of memory, including cerebral cortex
the hypothalamus
D. virtually all parts of the brain

13) The form of hypertonia in which the increased muscle contraction is continual and the resistance to passive stretch is constant is called
A. rigidity
B. spasticity
C. ataxia
D. Parkinson's disease

14) Electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns are mostly due to
A. action potentials in neurons in the brain
B. graded potentials in neurons in the brain
C. action potentials in neurons in the spinal cord
D. graded potentials in cardiac tissue

15) The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are
a. rods and cones.
b. bipolar cells.
c. ganglion cells.
d. amacrine cells.

16) During vestibular nystagmus:
1. eyes drift relatively slowly in the opposite direction
of rotation.
2. eyes jump rapidly in the direction of rotation.
3. eye movements continue until endolymph movement ceases.
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 1 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

17) Transduction of a sound wave into electrical impulses involves:
a. low frequency sounds traveling a short distance into the cochlea.
b. transmission of force through a compressible fluid.
c. resonance of the tectorial membrane, in response to specific
frequencies in specific areas.
d. the generation of receptor potentials.

18) Extended diarrhea can cause acidity of the blood due to
A. depletion of potassium
B. depletion of bicarbonate
C. dehydration
D. depletion of sodium
19) Absorbed fats first go to the
A. heart, to be circulated throughout the body
B. liver, to be further processed
C. lungs, to receive necessary oxygen
D. lymph system, then the venous system and back to the heart
20) An estimation of a person's metabolic rate can be obtained from that person's rate of
A. oxygen consumption
B. water production
C. growth
D. elimination of wastes
21) Which of the following factors will have the greatest impact on metabolic rate
A. increased skeletal muscle activity
B. increased brain activity
C. increased heart rate
D. increased breathing rate

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