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Metabolic pathways, oil, and living things

Write a 3-4 page paper that addresses each of the following topics. Use subtitles and headings to organize your paper. Research your answers to the questions below using scholarly sources, including national, university, and government websites, publications, and scientific journals. Cite your references throughout and include a references section at the end.

1. Begin by describing the origin of crude oil deposits in the ocean. What role did photosynthesis play in this process?

Define:
2. The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph
3. The relationship between a photosynthetic autotroph and a chemotrophic autotroph

4. Why is nitrogen important to living systems?
5. How are these metabolic pathways similar to photosynthesis?
6. From the Urakawa et al. (2012) paper: Why was nitrite production used to measure the activity of the microbes in the study?
7. What is a bioassay? Why did the scientists use it in this study?
8. Which organisms showed sensitivity to oil toxicity? What happened to nitrite production in these organisms? How did nitrite production relate to growth?

Solution Preview

1. Begin by describing the origin of crude oil deposits in the ocean. What role did photosynthesis play in this process?

The origin of oil deposit in the ocean started with sedimentary rocks that formed as sand, silt, and clay grains eroded from land surfaces and carried by moving water to be deposited in sediment layers. The chemical from the water formed natural cements to bind the sediment grains into hard rocks. The oil is trapped in the sedimentary rock layers that have been folded or faulted. The host sedimentary is porous for the oil to accumulate in spaces between the sediment grains, and accumulate deposits in the ocean layers.

Hydrocarbons ( oil and natural gas) are of organic origin, and maintain that some natural gas could have formed deep within the earth, where the heat melt the rocks that may have generated it. The weight of the evidence favors organic origin and most petroleum coming from plants and animals were buried and fossilized in sedimentary source rocks. The petroleum was chemically altered into crude oil and gas. The chemistry of oil is petroleum porphyrins.

The significance of oil chemistry is that it is a porhyrin molecules that break apart rapidly in presence of oxygen and heat. Porphyrins are still present in crude oils today and must mean that petroleum was chemically altered into crude oil and gas. Petroleum is also found in plants and animal blood.

The porphyrin molecules break apart rapidly in presence of oxygen and heat. Porphyrins are present in crude oils today must mean that petroleum source rock and plant fossils in had to have been kept from presence of oxygen when they were deposited and buried. The sedentary rocks were deposited under oxygen deficient conditions. The sedimentary rocks were deposited so rapidly that no oxygen could destroy the porphyrins in the plant and animal fossils.

Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide from air to carbohydrates and other kinds of fixed carbon and releases oxygen to the atmosphere. When firewood is burn, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is released back to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is removed from atmosphere over million of years and is being replaced quickly through consumption of fuels. The increase in carbon dioxide and gases is bound to affect our atmosphere. As photosynthesis consumes carbon dioxide and releases oxygen, it helps counteract the effect of combustion and fossil fuels. The burning of fossil fuels releases not only carbon dioxide, but hydrocarbon, ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses living things and metabolic pathways.

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