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Mammalian Evolution Multiple Choice

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Mammals alone
a. have hair and mammary glands
b. have a four-chambered heart
c. have the ability to regulate body temperature
d. exhibit parental care of the young

Genetic and immunological evidence show that the greatest differences occur between human populations native to ______ and all other human populations.
a. Africa
b. Asia
c. Australia
d. Europe

There are currently about ______ mammalian species on the endangered species list.
a. 30
b. 300
c. 3,000
d. 3,000,000

Only the anatomically modern humans and others of their lineage are classified as
a. anthropoid
b. hominids
c. hominoids
d. australopiths

There are only three living species of
a. marsupials
b. monotremes
c. eutherians
d. therapsids

The earliest known hominid fossils are from
a. South America
b. the Middle East
c. Asia
d. East Africa

According to the African-emergence model,
a. australopiths migrated out of Africa and into Asia and Europe
b. modern humans arose in several different locations throughout the world
c. modern humans arose in Africa, then dispersed
d. all groups of modern humans are equally related

The fossil remains known as "Lucy"
a. were found in Asia
b. are of a gracile australopith
c. are about 10 million years old
d. all of the above

Homo erectus
a. was the first known tool maker
b. was a gracile australopith
c. lived in Europe, Asia, and Africa
d. is not considered an ancestor of modern humans

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Solution Preview

1. Mammals alone (a) have hair and mammary glands. Birds also have four chambered hearts, the ability to regulate body temperature, and exhibit parental care of the young.

2. Genetic and immunological evidence show that the greatest differences occur between human populations native to _(a) Africa_____ and all other human populations.
This is a quote from Zietkiewicz et. al.. 1998. Genetic Structure of the Ancestral Population of Modern Humans. Journal of Molecular Evolution (47) 146-155.
Polymorphisms endemic to human groups or continentally restricted were younger than 100,000-200,000 years. Africans (six populations) with 13 such sites stood out from the rest of ...

Solution Summary

This solution answers multiple choice questions, but it give a complete description for WHY each answer is correct.

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What regions in the cerebral cortex are known to be involved in movement? How do these areas contribute to the production of motor behavior?

Located at approximately mid-brain and at the very back of the temporal lobe is the motor cortex, which is the area of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movements (Dubuc, 2008). Within the motor cortex are two sections that work together and separately to create fluid and complete movements. These sections consist of the primary motor cortex (area 4) and the supplementary motor area (SMA or area 6) (Dubuc, 2008). The primary motor cortex of the brain contributes to voluntary movement through generating signals to the opposite side of the body, letting the muscles know that it is time to move (Brain Connection, 2009). Since this action is simple, this area of the brain is considered a part of lower evolution, in that it evolved early in the species. The supplementary motor area is an area that is more involved in understanding spatial awareness, learned movements, and calculating strength and force to move an object. Since these actions are more complicated than simply moving a part of the body, this section of the brain is considered more advanced in that it evolved later in the species.

Do you know when we found that it was evolved? Or could it just be a section that we didn't know about because we didn't have the capability to find it early on? Are there other sections of the brain with this case of evolving?

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