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    Animal tissues types and homeostasis

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    1. The four basic animal tissues are

    a. connective, digestive, nervous, and respiratory.
    b. blood, bone, connective, and epithelial.
    c. epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
    d. digestive, nervous, reproductive, and respiratory.
    e. circulatory, excretory, respiratory, and sensory.

    2. Homeostatic mechanisms are processes that

    a. connect distant parts of the body by transporting materials.
    b. store and release fuel needed for cellular respiration.
    c. maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
    d. form lamellae within the osteons.
    e. relay, process, and store information.

    3. Ectothermic animals

    a. depend on heat from the external environment to adjust their body temperatures.
    b. may dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow and heat to the skin.
    c. maintain a relatively constant body temperature despite external temperatures.
    d. may have feathers to keep them insulated.
    e. none of the above

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    Tissues are an assemblage of cells that perform a specific function attributed to their structure. Hence, function follows form. In higher animals, tissues are assembled to form organs, where organs form organ systems. Animal tissues are grouped into 4 general types - epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Epithelial tissues are those that tissues that act as barriers in the body, forming linings or organs and cavities as well as making up the skin. The cells in epithelial tissue are densely packed due to tight junctions aiding in their protective function. Connective tissues are those that, as their name implies, connect and provide support to other tissues. Connective tissue is much less dense than epithelial tissue and is composed of proteinaceous fibers and specialized cells in an extracellular matrix. These specialized cells produce the proteins for the fibers and others are part of the immune system. There are also specialized connective tissues such as blood and bone. Muscle tissue are connected to the nervous tissue that stimulates them. Muscle tissues are composed of muscle fibers, which are long cells, varying among the types of muscle tissues, cardiac, striated, and smooth. Nervous tissue functions is made up of neurons that act as a transit system for sensed stimuli. Looking at the answers in the multiple choice question, answer choice a includes two organ systems and two tissue types. Choice b actually lists two examples of connective tissues, so really only includes 2 of the four types. Choice c is the correct answer. Choices d and e also include organ systems, so are incorrect.

    The next question requires a distinction between the external environment of an organism versus its internal environment. Some organisms, such as humans, can regulate the internal environment, to maintain relatively constant internal temperatures, blood pH, and even blood sugars. Some examples of mechanisms used to create this "steady state" are sweating to cool the body and the release of glucagon or insulin from the pancreas to raise or lower the blood sugar content. The correct answer choice is therefore c, because b is merely an example of one homeostatic mechanism, a is a function of the circulatory and endocrine systems, d is a characteristic of the connective tissue, bone, and e is a function of the nervous system.

    The last question refers to thermoregulation, or the maintenance of core body temperature even in varying external temperatures. Ectotherms mainly rely upon the external environment to control their body temperature. One behavioral example of this is the sunning of reptiles on rocks. Endotherms are animals that maintain the core body temperature due to metabolic reactions. The correct answer choice would be a. C is the definition of endotherms, and b and d are examples of thermoregulatory mechanisms.

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    Main source: Biology. Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B.; Mitchell, Lawrence G. 5th ed. Benjamin Cummings, 1999. Menlo Park, Ca

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com September 27, 2022, 10:33 am ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/biology/animal-biology/animal-tissues-types-homeostasis-326554

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