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Compare and contrast ethnic terms

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From the following list, select 2 pairs of comparisons. You will be selecting a total of 4 items. For each pair, compare the significance, ritual use, or cultural function or purpose. Always include an example of art work for each item, from the internet with a link. Look for interesting similarities and important differences between the items you have selected.

1) ijele

2) iwan

3) nkisi (pl. minkisi)

4) nkondi (pl. minkondi)

5) muqarnas

6) nowo

7) chattri

8) dao

9) bodhisattva

10) devaraja

11) garbhagriha

12) haboku

13) haniwa

14) jia

15) koan

16) kondo

17) pagoda

18) raigo

19) shikhara

20) stupa

21) tanka

22) taotie

23) yakshi

24) Zen

25) duk duk

26) kachina

27) kiva

28) potlatch

29) tubuan

30) tumbaga

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Kachina dolls are American Indian, particularly from the Hopi tribe.

From the following Web site: http://www.native-languages.org/kachinas.htm:
Hopi Kachina Dolls
These uniquely Hopi artworks are called "dolls," but that is a bit of a misnomer. Kachinas (or katsinas) are actually stylized religious icons, meticulously carved from cottonwood root and painted to represent figures from Hopi mythology. For generations, these figures have been used to teach children about their religion; no Hopi child has ever teethed on a katsina or taken one to bed, and given their price, I doubt any non-Hopi child has either. If you are looking for native-made dolls for children or as cultural collectibles, please visit our Native American dolls page.

Authentic kachina dolls are made only by Hopi artists. There are plenty of other tribes with their own figurine-carving traditions, but the kachina tradition is unique to the Hopi. When you see Navajo kachinas or Mexican kachinas, those are imitations of the real Hopi kachinas, just as much so as kachinas made by white people or imported from Korea are. Genuine kachina dolls are made by only a small number of Hopi carvers who have dedicated their lives to this art--it takes years of practice and religious study to master kachina carving.

OTA: while these figures may be doll-sized, they are not dolls. They are similar to Roman Catholic crucifixes - they are religious icons. Originals are very costly, but copies are made for reasonable cost.

Kivas are also American Indian, particularly from the Ancestral Puebloan Indians, but other tribes also make use of these ceremonial covered gathering places. Kivas can be above ground, partially or completely buried. They are the location for ceremonial Puebloan rites.

From the following site: http://archaeology.about.com/od/kterms/a/kiva.htm
A kiva is a special purpose ceremonial buildings used by ...

Solution Summary

Discussion of four ethnic terms by meaning, definition, significance and culture. Web references included.