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Quantitative Analysis: Research Article

Answer the following questions for the attached research article (Dormire, S.L. & Reame, N.K. 2003. Menopausal hot flash frequency changes in response to experimental manipulation of blood glucose. Nursing Research 52(5): 338-343.):

1. Problem
What is the problem the study was conducted to resolve?
Why is the problem an important one for nursing to study?

2. Study Purpose
What is the purpose of the study?

3. Research Question(s)
What is the main research question?

4. Hypothesis/hypotheses
What is the study hypothesis?

5. Study Variables
What are the independent and dependent study variables?

6. Conceptual Model/Theoretical Framework
In what way(s) was a conceptual model or theoretical framework used to guide this study?

7. Review of Related Literature
In what way(s) does the literature review support the need for this study?

8. Study Design
What study design is used?
In what way(s) is the design used an appropriate one?
Name and describe at least two threats to the internal validity of the study design.
Name and describe at least two threats to the external validity of the study design.

9. Sample and Setting
In what way(s) is the sample large enough?
In what way(s) is the sample representative of the population?
In what way(s) is the setting in which data were collected an appropriate one for this study?

10. Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables
What are the extraneous variables in this study?
In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables?

11. Study Instruments/Tools
In what way(s) is the support provided for the validity of the study instruments adequate for their use in this study?
In what way(s) is the support provided for the reliability of the study instruments adequate for their use in this study?
In what way(s) were the instruments used appropriate for this study?

12. Data Collection Methods
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study?
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect the rights of the subjects?

13. Data Analysis Procedures
In what way(s) are the data analysis procedures appropriate for the data collected?
In what way(s) are the data analysis procedures appropriate for answering the research question(s) and/or testing the study hypothesis (hypotheses)?

14. Strengths/Limitations
What are two major strengths of the scientific merit of this study?
What are two major limitations of the scientific merit of this study?

See attached files for full problem description.

Attachments

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1. Problem

What is the problem the study was conducted to resolve?

This experimental study was conducted to determine the relationship between glucose levels and hot flashes in menopausal women age 38-55.

Why is the problem an important one for nursing to study?

2. Study Purpose

What is the purpose of the study?

The purpose of this study was to examine and determine the relationship between glucose availability and hot flashes in menopausal women.

3. Research Question(s)

What is the main research question?

The main research question is: Is there a significant difference n the incidence of menopausal hot flashes between conditions of fasting and experimentally sustained blood glucose concentration of 130-104 mg/dl.

4. Hypothesis/hypotheses

What is the study hypothesis?

This research studied the hypothesis that hot flash frequency varies with blood glucose concentration.

5. Study Variables

What are the independent and dependent study variables?

The independent variable was blood glucose level. The dependent variable was skin conductance (a measure of hot flashes).

6. Conceptual ModelTheoretical Framework

In what way(s) was a conceptual model or theoretical framework used to guide this study?

The hypothesis being tested comes from the "brain glucose counter-regulatory model". The model says that the withdrawal of estrogen at the onset of menopause is linked to decreased transcription of GLUT 1, which decreases the amount of glucose that can be used by the brain (this is illustrated in Figure 1, which didn't show up in the text file). In rats, hot flashes can be induced by blocking brain cells from using glucose, and an earlier observational study showed that hot flashes were absent in women when their blood glucose was elevated after eating breakfast.

This theoretical framework led to the current study which aims to clarify the brain-glucose interaction in the development of hot flashes.

7. Review of Related Literature

In what way(s) does the literature review support the need for this study?

8. Study Design

What study design is used? Experimental

In what way(s) is the design used an appropriate one?

This was a within-subjects (repeated measures) experimental design. The same subjects were used as both the control group (saline infusion) and the treatment group (glucose infusion). Since they are their own controls, any confounding variables are controlled for.

Name and describe at least two threats to the internal validity of the study design.

practice effects/carryover effects: the results during the treatment or non-treatment phases might be caused by previous treatments. However, since participants were given ...

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