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State Percentage who smoke Cancer incidence per 100,000

The following data come from statehelthfacts.org. The states were chosen somewhat randomly by me.

State Percentage who smoke Cancer incidence per 100,000 (age-adjusted)
Kentucky 27.4% 498.2
Pennsylvania 22.6% 496.2
Maine 20.9% 508.9
New York 19.9% 469.3
Maryland 19.5% 488.0
Utah 10.5% 405.7

A. Explain why it might be important to look at cancer incidence that is age-adjusted rather than just cancer incidence).
B. (Perform simple linear regression on these data and report your finding.
C. Explain the significance of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the coefficient of determination.

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a. Comparisons cannot be done on raw, or crude, numbers of cancer cases or deaths because the populations may not be comparable with respect to age. Much like finding the common denominator when working with fractions, epidemiologists must calculate age-adjusted incidence or death rates so that the populations of different states or regions are similar enough for comparison.
For example, consider two states, Florida and Alaska. Florida has a relatively old population and Alaska has a relatively young population. If you look only at each state's crude cancer death rate (total number of cancer deaths divided by the total population) it appears as if Florida has a cancer death rate almost ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides detailed explanations in a 2-page Word document and also graphs in Excel file.