- Explain the community-based response to the breast cancer issue, including community-based planning, needs assessments, and selection of locally identified objectives.
- Compare institutional and community leadership roles in responding to these targeted health objectives.
- Describe any economic factors and funding intervention strategies that will address breast cancer.
- Describe the role of social marketing in promoting public health related to breast cancer.
Breast Cancer: Part II
Cancer is a major and leading cause of deaths worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2008 alone, the disease accounted for approximately 8 million deaths (15% of all deaths). Lung, breast, colorectal, stomach, and prostate cancers are responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Main risk factors for cancer include but are not limited to tobacco use, fatty, unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity and abuse and overuse of alcohol. Initiatives and Campaign such as the Get Out and Race in Racine campaign (Susan G. Komen Walk) have been successful in the response to breast cancer.
Vital statistics data about the disease are integral to the issue and provide information about the number of new and existing cases and deaths; and models and systems used to determine and analyze the disease (CDC, 2012 a). In addition, managed care data; disease registries; and epidemiologic tools and surveillance systems are critical and necessary, for reporting on trends in the disease; risk assessment and analysis; early detection methods; and how to address, analyze, evaluate, monitor, decide upon appropriate methods of supporting and educating the victims and the public; and how to arrive at prevention efforts and employing future initiatives. Additionally, collected data helps to guide public health professionals; epidemiologists, researchers, and the general public to better understand the extent of the burden of the disease. (CDC, 2012 b).
This report is the second in the series on breast cancer and is intended to examine the response for breast cancer awareness; community, state and national objectives; incidence, prevalence, and the mortality differences in breast cancer at national and state levels. The report will also address community based planning and response to breast cancer; needs assessments; institutional and community leadership roles in responding to the disease targeted health objectives; economic factors and funding intervention strategies that addresses the disease; and finally the role of social marketing in promoting public health as it relates to breast cancer. Federal, state, and local agencies have encouraged and suggested that communities assess how breast cancer affects the community and specific target populations. Initiatives such as the Racine Walk for a Cure and Susan G. Komen are the equivalent of the campaigns for the public health issue of breast cancer. They align with the nation's health objectives, in that it provides and funds services including but not limited to preventative, screening mammography, breast cancer heath education and community outreach, diagnostics, patient navigation systems, services and treatment services. Through research, innovations in medicine and medical technology have led to earlier and more correct diagnoses as well as improved treatment for most cancers including breast cancer. As a result, each year more people stand better chances of being diagnosed early, and for surviving the disease as well. For example, approximately 70% of survivors are expected to live at least 5 years after diagnosis, resulting in more people diagnosed with cancer surviving each year. That said however, worldwide, deaths from cancer are projected to continue to rise with approximately 14 million deaths by 2030(WHO, 2012 a).
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), in 2010 alone there were approximately 209,060 new cases of breast cancer and approximately 41, 000 deaths. The number of individuals who get afflicted with breast cancer is referred to as breast cancer incidence. The United States are usually divided into groups, based on the rates at which women developed or died from the disease. Currently, 2008 is the most recent year with
Numbers available. The rates reflect the numbers from 100,000 women who actually developed or died from the disease each year (CDC, 2012 a). Additionally, the risk of getting breast cancer varies from state to state in the U.S as shown below (Fig.1):
101.9 to 117.7 Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming
117.8 to 121.4
Alabama, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Montana, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin
121.5 to 127.0
California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Maine, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Vermont, and Virginia
127.1 to 139.5
Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Washington
*Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
†Source: U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2008 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta (GA): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute; 2012, a. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/uscs.
Certain factors that affect breast cancer prevalence rates, and the largest effects shown in the disease calculations. As prevalence is a stock variable that also contains cases that were and became incidence in the past. As such long survival times in breast cancer explain why the specific factors have such strong influence (Kruijshaar, Barendregt & van de Poll-Franse, 2003). The time that passes after prevalence, tends to fully reflect a change in incidence, and is determined by the rate at which the pool of prevalent cases is replaced by new cases. This in turn, depends on the survival time. The underestimation of the breast cancer prevalence data is much in part due to the limitation to incident cases after 1970, and could be as large as close to 50% in the higher age spectrum up to 85 years, and is lower on average, as the effect increases with age. If and when effects are calculated, and are in addition to adjusting for incidence trends, the numbers are usually smaller, for example, 24% as oppose to almost 50% at age 85(Kruijshaar et al, 2003).
It is important to keep up to date regarding the prevalence of breast cancer. There is a need to better describe and understand the prevalence of breast cancer treatment-as it relates to adverse effects that are amenable to physical therapy and rehabilitative exercise. Additionally, there is a paucity of studies featuring long-term follow-up with regards to prevalence. To that end, more research is needed in such area.
Mortality and Mortality differences (National vs. State Level)
For reasons unknown, breast cancer rate levels tend to differ across ...
The expert explains the community-based response to the breast cancer issue, including community-based planning, needs assessments, and selections of locally identified objectives. The institutional and community leadership roles in responding to these targeted health objectives are compared.