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# Scientific Methodology

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What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data? Provide an example of each type.

What is a null and alternative hypothesis?

What is a variable? What are independent and dependent variables?

What is the difference between population and sample? When would you want to use a sample? How would you go able obtaining a sample?

What is the difference between probability and non-probability sampling? Which sampling method would strengthen the research design? Why?

https://brainmass.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/scientific-methodology-524887

#### Solution Preview

Qualitative data are observations corresponding to a qualitative variable which gives classification of individuals based on some attribute or characteristic. Quantitative data are observations corresponding to a quantitative variable which provides numerical measures of individuals. For example, male and female are qualitative data, temperatures of 7am and 9pm are ...

#### Solution Summary

The difference between qualitative and quantitative data are determined. Independent and dependent variables are given. The expert defines null and alternative hypothesis.

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## The Scientific Method: Preparing for an Application

To prepare for this Application:
•Bring to mind a case in your own life where you could use the scientific method, or elements of the scientific method, to solve a problem. Think about observations you make on a daily basis that are related to nutrition. This may include how many alcohol commercials play during sporting events on the television, how many coworkers bring sack lunches for lunch versus take-out or frozen lunches, or the number of sugary cereal commercials that play during cartoons on Saturday mornings, for example.

•Choose an observation related to nutrition that you have made around you that you would like to investigate using the scientific method.

•From your observation, propose a hypothesis. For example, "More alcohol commercials play during a basketball game on the television than during a made-for-TV movie for women."

•After you have determined your hypothesis, observe and collect data that will help you prove or disprove your hypothesis. (For the example hypothesis, this would include watching a basketball game and recording the number of alcohol commercials played during that game and then watching a made-for-TV movie for women and recording the number of alcohol commercials that play during that movie).

The assignment:
•Write a 2-page paper in which you apply the scientific method to observation and data analysis and test your hypothesis based on your observations. Please make sure that your paper contains all of the following headers:

◦Abstract: This is a brief, 150-word summary of the entire paper, including the results you found. This does not need to contain citations.

◦Introduction: The introduction is a statement of why you decided to conduct your research study and what information it has the potential to contribute to the scientific world. Be sure to include any background information important for the reader to understand your study. Also, be sure to identify clearly your hypothesis statement. (1-2 paragraphs)

◦Methods and Materials: Describe the process you went through to collect your data in detail, including minor elements that may be relevant, like time or day, or anything important for the reader to understand your data collection methods. (1-2 paragraphs)

◦Results and Conclusion: Provide the results of your data, either in tabular form or written out as part of the essay. Also, be sure to interpret your results clearly and provide your reasoning whether you can or cannot support your original hypothesis. Remember, even results that do not support your original hypothesis are a good contribution to science! (1-2 paragraphs)

•Remember to include citations, especially in your Introduction and Conclusion, in order to support your ideas by citing relevant research or scientific concepts.

•Use at least two APA-formatted references. Submit your paper with double spacing in 12-point Arial.

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