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Scientific Knowledge, Contributions, and Methodology

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Incarceration, Addiction and Harm Reduction: Inmates Experience Injecting Drugs in Prison. By: Small, Will; Kain, S.; Laliberte, Nancy; Schechter, Martin; O'shaughnessy, Michael; Spittal, Patricia. Substance Use & Misuse. 2005, Vol. 40 Issue 6, p831-843. 13p.

1. What was the methodology used in the article (qualitative or quantitative)?
2. What was the approach used in the article? (If your article was qualitative, the approaches include case study, phenomenology, ethnography, and grounded theory. If your article
was quantitative, the three approaches are experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental.)
3. In order for research to have scientific merit in psychology, it must contribute new, meaningful knowledge to the field of psychology. In a few sentences, summarize the new knowledge that was contributed by this research. Then, write one or two paragraphs explaining how this knowledge is meaningful to psychology as a science. Also address the importance of the application of this knowledge by psychologists (and other professionals) in real-world settings.
4. In order for research to have scientific merit in psychology, it must advance psychological theories. In one or two paragraphs, describe the theoretical foundations of the research and how the research advanced those. For example, the research may have tested, confirmed, extended, or modified a theory. Perhaps it generated a new theory.
5. Describe the sample and the sampling procedure (the way in which the participants were selected). Avoid quoting the article, and use your own descriptions. Evaluate whether the sample and sampling procedures were appropriate for the methodology and approach.
6. Describe the data-collection procedure. This would start after participants gave informed consent, and end when the participants have completed the study. Avoid quoting the article, and use your own descriptions. If your methodology was qualitative, you might be describing interview procedures, for example. If your methodology was quantitative, make sure you describe any group assignment methods or any repeated measures (such as a pretest or post test). Evaluate whether the data-collection procedure was appropriate for the methodology and approach.
7. Describe the data-analysis procedure. You need only describe the procedure or the statistical tests (if your methodology was quantitative). Avoid quoting the article and use your own descriptions. Evaluate whether the data-analysis procedure was appropriate for the methodology and approach.
8. Describe the findings and the conclusions the researchers made. Evaluate whether the conclusions allowed the researchers to answer the research questions and address the research problem.

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Scientific Knowledge, Contributions, and Methodology
Please give me the direction to analyze this article:

Incarceration, Addiction and Harm Reduction: Inmates Experience Injecting Drugs in Prison. By: Small, Will; Kain, S.; Laliberte, Nancy; Schechter, Martin; O'shaughnessy, Michael; Spittal, Patricia. Substance Use & Misuse. 2005, Vol. 40 Issue 6, p831-843. 13p.

1. What was the methodology used in the article (qualitative or quantitative)?

This is a qualitative research methodology.

Further guidance: Even if the article did not spell it out, the title alone would give it away. APA ethical guidelines would not permit human experimentation that would involve intravenous drug use/abuse and HIV. Further, the research question seeks to answer the question "Why" which is a qualitative research question.

2. What was the approach used in the article? (If your article was qualitative, the approaches include case study, phenomenology, ethnography, and grounded theory. If your article
was quantitative, the three approaches are experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental.)

The qualitative method of this study is case study in which self identified participants are interviewed using specific questions to get the information needed which would also include a complete gathering of all data available.

3. In order for research to have scientific merit in psychology, it must contribute new, meaningful knowledge to the field of psychology. In a few sentences, summarize the new knowledge that was contributed by this research. Then, write one or two paragraphs explaining how this knowledge is meaningful to psychology as a science. Also address the importance of the application of this knowledge by psychologists (and other professionals) in real-world settings.

This study seeks to answer the question of why inmates share needles with each other and how those connections are made on a psychosocial level. It is a look in the social structures and cognitive decision-making among inmates, which leads them to share needles at the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.

The intent of this study was not only to contribute new and meaningful knowledge about the ...

Solution Summary

Scientific knowledge, contributions and methodologies are examined.

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