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    International Sociology Questions

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    I have used several of your response from 2012 in my current Sociology class. I was wondering if you could provide me a response to the following questions.

    1. Describe the schooling in India and Japan. How does it relate to the schooling children receive in the United States?
    2. Compare and contrast some of the issues regarding health in the United States. Provide three examples of and create solutions on how these can be prevented/resolved.
    3. Make an argument for and against the symbolic-interaction approach in schooling.
    4. Examine the different types of medical care in high-income nations around the world. Describe which is most beneficial for a country with a population over 300 million. What are some solutions to the problem of healthcare?
    5. In your own words, define migration. How has migration affected the population centers throughout the United States? Provide examples.
    6. According to Macionis, "I = PAT, where environmental impact (I) reflects a society's population (P), its level of affluence (A), and its level of technology (T)" (2011, p. 463). In other words, the higher the population, the richer the country, and the higher level of technology, causes a greater impact upon the environment of that society. In your own words, describe the term environmental deficit, and discuss the effects a rising global population has upon the environment.

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    1. Describe the schooling in India and Japan. How does it relate to the schooling children receive in the United States?

    The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five "standards," upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school. Students throughout the country have to also learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue (Kumisr).

    There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number of "central schools" (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is being taught. In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes (Kumisr).

    Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher secondary). Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years (Kumisr).

    The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system (six years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, three years of senior high school and four years of University) with was established to mirror the American school system. The gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time period is nine years, six in shougakkou (elementary school) and three in chuugakkou (junior high school). It is interesting to note that Japan has one of the world's best-educated populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory, high school (koukou) enrollment is over 96% nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. The high school dropout rate is about two percent which is extremely low especially compared to America. About 46% of all high school graduates go on to university or junior college. The Ministry of Education closely supervises curriculum, textbooks, classes, and maintains a uniform level of education throughout the country. As a result, a high standard of education is possible (Abe).

    Most schools operate on a three-term system with the new year starting in April. Except for the lower grades of elementary school, the average school day on weekdays is 6 hours, which makes it one of the longest school days in the world. Even after school lets out, the children have drills and other homework to keep them busy. Vacations are 6 weeks in the summer and about 2 weeks each for winter and spring breaks. There is often homework over these vacations. A big difference between the Japanese school ...

    Solution Summary

    The expert describes the schooling in India and Japan. The issues regarding health in the United States are compared and contrasted. Arguments for and against the symbolic-interaction approach in schooling are given.