Respond to the following in the context of the situation in California:
San Francisco police cited several factors they say contribute to African Americans accounting for about half of all felony arrests in the city, where they are less than 8 percent of the population. In 2005, 1 out of 3 arrests of black people involved narcotics. San Francisco's high black arrest rate is not of recent origin: 20 years ago, San Francisco was making black felony arrests at a rate much higher than California's seven other largest cities, state Justice Department reports show. In 1986, for example, San Francisco's black felony arrest rate was almost 45 percent greater than Los Angeles' and almost 51 percent higher than Oakland's. Many minorities believe that California's predominantly white judges, juries and court staffs treat them unfairly while courts convict and imprison them at a higher rate than whites, said a report released yesterday by the state Judicial Council. Statistics on the sentencing of adults "are inconclusive," according to the report. But it found evidence of racial and ethnic prejudice in several national studies. For example, 33.2 percent of black males in California were on parole, on probation or in prison in 1990. The comparable figures for Latinos and whites were 9.4 percent and 5.4 percent, respectively.
At the same time, the report said, whites commit about 60 percent of rapes, robberies and assaults in California but account for less than half of the prison population.
In the decades since then, San Francisco's black felony arrest rate has climbed by more than 35 percent while the other seven major California cities' rates have dropped -- often by a considerable amount. During those 20 years, Los Angeles' black felony arrest rate dropped by more than 36 percent and Oakland's declined by more than 52 percent.
•How is labeling theory different from anomie and ecological theories? How does the concept of symbolic interactionism affect labeling?
•How effective is labeling theory in explaining the situation in San Francisco and other cities in California?
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First, when briefly justifying how labeling theory is different from anomie and ecological theories, I interpret that labeling theory targets the use of stigmatizing and highly judgmental labels by society on some members, making it almost like a self-fulfilling prophecy. It is similar to conflict theory as it implies how those in power within society formulate and enforce rules, which then subjugate the ...
Various types of crime theories are briefly analyzed in 200 words. One APA source is further cited. Specifically, all theories correlate with the race and crime statistics in San Francisco and other cities in California, based on the presented scenario. The use of Labeling theory is the primary one.