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Juvenile Delinquency - Criminology and Public Policy

****THE INFORMATION BELOW WAS THE BASE USED TO COMPLETE THE PHASE 2 ASSIGNMENT*****

Serial references are those that are over 10-years-old and that put forth a theory that has been deemed to be a foundation for other theories. Examples: Sutherland and differential association theory, Freud and psychoanalytical theory, or Pavlov and behavioral theory.

The Labeling Approach to Delinquency: State of the Theory as a Function of Method. Academic Journal By: Meade, Anthony C. Social Forces. Sep74, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p83-91. 9p.

Labeling theory is a theoretical concept that is well-respected throughout the criminal justice field, and is predicated upon the hypothesis that juveniles are more prone to delinquency when labelled as delinquent or when placed into contact with the formal criminal justice system. The article analyzes the labelling approach by developing a hypothesis for selective bias on the part of official decision-makers and the independent effect of social control upon delinquency recidivism. The results of the tests used to test the hypothesis discovered that juvenile recidivism is impacted by official labelling (formal hearings) of juveniles as delinquents, and this contributes to future delinquency. The researchers offered future suggestions for, and examples of, promising lines of methodological inquiry into central but neglected dimensions of labeling theory.

THE LABELING THEORY: A Critical Analysis. Academic Journal By: Ward, Richard H. Criminology. Aug-Nov1971, Vol. 9 Issue 2/3, p268-290. 23p. 3 Charts.

Researchers' used literature review to analyze studies of juvenile delinquency which adopted a labeling approach or perspective. The objective of this study was to ascertain decisions made by officers when they come into contact with juvenile offenders. Police officers have great autonomy and discretion when deciding whether a juvenile will be formally entered into the justice system for delinquency offenses such as statutory crimes. The researchers found that the decision to implement the juvenile into the justice system depended upon cues which emerged from the interaction between the officer and the youth, cues from which the officer inferred the youth's character. What the researchers hypothesized has lead the research of minorities and juvenile delinquency for decades. The researchers discovered that police officers would treat minorities (Negros) differently when encountering them engaging in delinquency than how they treated white children for the same delinquency offenses. This study was a precursor for the extensive research that has shown consistently how minority youth are disproportionately implemented into the justice system for juvenile delinquency in comparison to their white counterparts who commit the same statutory offenses

THE EFFECT OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION ON THE DELINQUENT INMATE'S SELF CONCEPT. Academic Journal By: Culbertson, Robert G. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Mar1975, Vol. 66 Issue 1, p88-93. 6p. 1 Chart, 2 Graphs.

This study used qualitative research design to interview self-concept scores of 222 delinquent boys incarcerated in a juvenile facility using a cross-sectional design. The researchers discovered that juveniles that had never been incarcerated experienced a significant decrease in self-concept scores after their first interaction with the justice system. In reference to cases involving an increase in self-concept scores, a more troubling aspect began to emerge according to researchers as juveniles began to internalize their label as a delinquent with groups of juveniles increasingly involved in more delinquent behavior as they began to identify themselves with a delinquent value structure and a delinquent self-concept. This research was integral because it showed the correlation between labelling juveniles as delinquents and juveniles seeing themselves as delinquents as a result of this label. The juvenile justice system commences a negative labelling process resulting is depreciated self-concepts for juveniles labeled as delinquents, which is the essence of the labelling theory.

•Select 10-15 sources that you will use for your annotated bibliography.
•For each selected source, complete the following: ◦Make an APA reference for the material.
◦Write a brief description that summarizes the central theme of the material. ◾Evaluate the background of the author, comment on the intended audience, compare or contrast this work with other sources that you have referenced, and explain how this work relates to your topic.

Historical Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Academic Journal By: Fitzgerald, Charity Samantha. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Apr2011, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p297-311. 15p.

The researchers in this journal article reviewed historical theories of crime and delinquency identifying four constellations of historical theories that explain crime and delinquency including history of social science explanations, positivism, constructionism, and post-structuralism. Researchers' concluded that integrating social environments and human behaviors in historical explanations of crime and delinquency was mandatory for understanding delinquency.

Economic Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Academic Journal By: Jacob, Anupama. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Apr2011, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p270-283. 14p. 1

Researchers conducted a literature review to provide three theoretical economic frameworks for explaining persistent social problems in modern society such as crime and delinquency. These three frameworks included rational model, the present-oriented or myopic model, and the radical political economic model. Researchers' provided hypotheses such as rational crime and delinquency wherein a juvenile chooses to engage in crime or delinquency by focusing on short-and long-term gains, which is debunked by most researchers. In contrast to the rational model, the most widely accepted model for juveniles is the present-oriented or myopic model wherein juveniles only focus on the short-term benefits without particular concern for the long-term consequences of their actions because of their lack of mental development.

Sociological Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Academic Journal By: Zembroski, David. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Apr2011, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p240-254. 15p. 1 Diagram.

Researchers conducted a literature review of the most frequently cited sociological theories of crime and delinquency. Anomie theory, theories associated with the Chicago School of Sociology, and theories of strain, social control, opportunity, conflict, and developmental life course are all examined. The researchers attempted to ascertain the inter-relationships and contexts of the major theoretical perspectives.

LABELING AND DELINQUENCY. Academic Journal By: Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C. Adolescence. Spring2003, Vol. 38 Issue 149, p171. 16p.

The research article analyzes the relationship between labeling and teenage delinquency. The perceived informal labeling of the self is measured by researchers of by analyzing the effects of parent, teacher and peer labeling and contact with social control agencies on self-reported delinquency of juveniles. Powers of labeling variables in relation to delinquency and drug-related offenses are confirmed.

Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Applying the Modified Labeling Theory to Juvenile Delinquents. Conference By: Lee, James; Kroska, Amy; Carr, Nicole. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association. 2008 Annual Meeting, p1. 0p.

This research paper analyzing stigma sentiments associated with juvenile delinquency and researchers found consistent support for the validity of the evaluation component as measures of these conceptions. Modified labeling theory was the conceptual framework that researchers hypothesized would positively correlate with each stigma sentiment and the researchers confirmed that self-identities among juvenile delinquents contributed to delinquency. We find support for this hypothesis on the evaluation dimension. The results of the study found that negative cultural conceptions associated with the category of "a juvenile delinquent" impact the self-meanings of individuals charged in juvenile delinquency court.

devils in disguise: the contribution of positive labeling to "sneaky thrills" delinquency. By: Brezina, Timothy; Aragones, Amie A. Deviant Behavior. Nov/Dec2004, Vol. 25 Issue 6, p513-535. 23p.

This article takes a separate theoretical approach to by offering the hypothesis that positive labelling has crime-facilitating wherein positive labeling has the potential to promote delinquent behavior under certain conditions such when positive labeling increases opportunity for delinquent involvement. The researchers argue that youths could actively campaign for positive labels as a deceptive tactic to gain the trust of adults in order to overcome barriers to engaging in delinquency. Using literature review, the researchers provide quotes and interviews from other research studies involving juvenile offenders to illustrate their hypothesis.

Stigmatization or Normalization? The Declining Relevance of Labeling Theory in Disadvantaged Urban Communities. Conference By: Hirschfield, Paul. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association. 2004 Annual Meeting, San Francisco, p1-20. 21p.

This research article also offers a separate hypothesis for labelling theory by arguing that in areas where criminal occurrences are high and communities are severely disadvantaged, the impact of labeling is not integral in causing juveniles to identify with crime as a result of being labelled a delinquent because it is already normalized within these communities. Researchers used personal interviews with twenty minority youth (aged 18-20) from high poverty urban neighborhoods, who experienced at least one juvenile arrest to illustrate their hypothesis that juvenile arrests carry's little stigma and do little discernible harm to self-concept or social relationships of juvenile offenders from these neighborhoods. It suggests that traditional labeling theory does not adequately capture the impact of criminal justice intervention in inner-city black communities.

****BELOW IS THE PART I NEED ASSISTANCE WITH*****

In this assignment, you will take the annotated bibliography that you made in Week 2 and prepare a literature review with the material that will bring forth the ideas of your study. Literature reviews have many citations. This literature review will analyze and evaluate previous research on the topic.

A literature review is not a collection of paraphrased material. It is an in-depth evaluation and review, along with critical thinking, pertaining to the articles that you are reading. "As a general rule, certainly for a longer review, each paragraph should address one point, and present and evaluate all of the evidence, from all of the differing points of view" (What Is A Literature Review, 2011).

Assignment Guidelines
•Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, conduct a literature review of your selected sources.
•Your literature review should be 4-6 pages in length.
•Remember to use APA style for all references and citations.

Reference

What is a literature review? (2011). Retrieved from http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-a-literature-review.html.

Solution Preview

Assignment Guidelines
•Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, conduct a literature review of your selected sources.
•Your literature review should be 4-6 pages in length.
•Remember to use APA style for all references and citations.

The Labeling Approach to Delinquency: State of the Theory as a Function of Method. Academic Journal By: Meade, Anthony C. Social Forces. Sep74, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p83-91. 9p.

The literature review for this particular research article was limited because of the lack of research conducted on labelling theory. Therefore, researchers chose to use qualitative design to observe selective bias toward labelling juveniles from different ethnic backgrounds when encountering the criminal justice system. The researchers used a qualitative methodology to develop an hypothesis about labeling theory and used chi-squared tests as well as other tests to test their hypothesis on whether selective bias on the part of official decision-makers and the independent effect of social control upon delinquency recidivism exists. The results of the tests used to test the hypothesis discovered that juvenile recidivism is impacted by official labelling (formal hearings) of juveniles as delinquents, and this contributes to future delinquency, and this article was responsible for driving future research on the labeling theory as a methodological approach toward juvenile crime.

THE LABELING THEORY: A Critical Analysis. Academic Journal By: Ward, Richard H. Criminology. Aug-Nov1971, Vol. 9 Issue 2/3, p268-290. 23p. 3 Charts.

At the time of this article, the labeling theory was in its infancy, and the literature review regarding juvenile delinquency research was predicated upon research conducted in the field at juvenile detention centers wherein attempts were made to explain delinquency from the perspective of the juvenile. The literature review at the time of this article indicated that researchers found juvenile delinquency was attributed to individual and group factors as well as the social milieu within which the juvenile functions. Quintessentially, only two viewpoints existed in the literature on juvenile delinquency during the time of this article including the racist and refuted viewpoint that delinquency is concentrated most heavily among lower-class juvenile as well as the refuted viewpoint that delinquent acts are typically a group phenomenon, not a solitary enterprise. The literature review subsequently highlighted the recent studies "at the time" that found "middle-class" delinquency as a result of self-reported data as opposed to official statistics on lower-class juveniles.

The literature review at this time viewed labelling theory as naturalistic, descriptive data and observation predicated upon qualitative research techniques that enabled perspective views about deviance from the standpoint of the enforcer. The article conducted literature review of various studies associated with labeling theory to represent a cross-section of current works "at the time" utilizing a labeling perspective. From the literature review, the researchers found two general posits common to the labeling theory, which indicated that agencies of social control, by a process of "typing," tend to categorize individuals according to various criteria, such as race, demeanor, dress, and the like, and focus their attention on these individuals; and, secondly, that these agencies may actually create, or at least support, delinquency. Therefore, the researchers found "bias" that still is evident 40 years later in how courts, police, schools, etc. label juveniles ...

Solution Summary

The labeling approach for delinquency is discussed.

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