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Op-Ed: Focus on Evidence

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Give the APA reference for the op-ed piece, followed by a brief overview of the issue and of the author's position on the issue. Then offer your evaluation of the Op-Ed piece for the strengths and weaknesses of its evidence. Justify your evaluation, and provide an example of evidence that could strengthen the communicator's argument.

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Op-Ed: Focus on Evidence

(1) Give the APA reference for the op-ed piece, followed by a brief overview of the

The following Op addresses the problem of Evidence-based medicine and health practices. A definition is provided for evidence-based medicine (EBM) as the 'conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.' Based on this OP ED, evidence-based medicine and health practices seem to have raised controversy regarding the role of evidence in medicine. For instance, the major tools of evidence-based medicine are based on trials that have the objective of drawing general conclusions. For instance, the first tool is the interpretation in which evidence is viewed as primary and other measures of health concern were secondary. Ramaratram, Imaryan, & David, (2012) argue that it is naive to believe that the practice of medicine can be based entirely on evidence. For instance, as they point out, there are many conditions for which there is no evidence that a medicine is effective, and no record on the safety of some individuals. In addition, the evidence may be either unreliable, or affordable or practical.

Ramaratram et al (2012) point to another related misconception concerning evidence in the decision-making process. They explain that evidence helps to inform healthcare business decisions. For instance, based on the evidence health care are decisions can be made that has the potential of saving lives. In addition, the authors assert that the decisions help clinicians as to whether to use specific interventions or not. Moreover, the goal of evidence-based medicines approaches is to select and train therapists and ensure that they follow manual-directed therapies, perfectionism in initial assessments and high-quality follow-up and outcome measures. The real evidence is involved in a process in which a medicine is compared with a placebo. As an example, brain-imaging studies provide objective evidence that the human person is susceptible to contextual variables such as relationship, personality and environmental factors. Studies also reveal that medicines used in clinical trials make them irrelevant for the public because of the exclusion of some in the trials (Doniger, 2001).

(2) The author's position on the issues

The author's position is that while ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides an Op Ed focused on evidence-based medicine and practices.

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Assessment for individual learning and quality improvement of instruction

Read the article entitled, "Assessment in Work‐Based Learning: Investigating a Pedagogical Approach to Enhance Student Learning." (see attached) According to Brodie and Irving (2007):

As teachers [...], we need to ensure that students will know:

- What learning is (learning implies change)—learning theory;
- How to do it best (the style, approach, fitness for purpose)—learning theory;
- When they have learned (description of and reflection about the learning)—critical reflection;
- What their learning is informed by (its validity; how it stands up to scrutiny against outside evidence)—critical reflection;
- What they need to learn (future learning)—critical reflection;
- What they have learned, know more about, become more able at doing (analysis and evaluation of the learning)—capability (p.14).

Explain how assessment can be used for both individual learner mastery and continuous quality improvement of the instruction. Offer your thoughts on how critical reflection is essential in the assessment process not only for the educator, but for learners as well. Be sure to support your assertions with references from the reading.

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