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    Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Perspectives

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    Cara is a 14-year-old girl from Austin, Texas, who regularly smokes tobacco, drinks alcohol, and smokes marijuana with her friends. Cara was recently arrested for breaking and entering, and, as part of her sentence, participated in a case study on teenage substance abuse and deviant behavior, which has grown exponentially over the past decade. Several factors play contributing roles to this growing epidemic of deviance and substance abuse among teenagers, including negative influences from peers, familial socioeconomic statuses, exponentially histories of substance abuse, and separation and conflict within the family structure. All of these variables are present and appear to have direct impacts on Cara's problem behaviors.

    Examine the above paragraph of Cara's life from the Micro, Mezzo, and Macro perspectives and describe the kinds of influences that may have led to this person's situation for each level of influence, and label each of the perspectives (Micro, Mezzo, and Macro) accordingly.

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    Significant Events in the Development of the Counseling Profession
    1889 - Jane Addams
    Established the Hull House in Chicago and marked the beginning of the social movement focusing on assisting the individual. Addams' philosophy influenced the social justice movement that grew in the counseling profession 100 years later.
    1907 - Jesse B. Davis
    Superintendant of the Grand Rapids, MI, school system, implemented the first systematic guidance program in public schools.
    1908 - Frank Parsons
    The "Father of Vocational Guidance," founded Boston's Vocational Bureau. This was the first major step in institutionalizing vocational guidance. Parsons worked with young people in making their career decisions. His theory proposed that choosing a vocation required relating three factors: a clear understanding of self, knowledge of work, and true reasoning of the relationship of the two. This framework would later become the basis trait/factor theory of career development.
    1908 - A Mind That Found Itself is published
    The book is an autobiographical account of Clifford Beers' experiences as a mental hospital patient. The following year, Beers founded the National Committee for Mental Hygiene (today's Mental Health America), which was the formal start of the reform movement to better conditions in mental hospitals and general care of the mentally ill.
    1913 - National Vocational Guidance Association
    The first counseling association (NVGA) was established at the National Society for Promotion of Industrial Education (NSPIE) meeting in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
    1917 - Smith-Hughes Act
    Provided funding for vocation education in public schools.
    1917-1918 - U.S. Army screening draftees
    The U.S. Army began using psychological instruments to screen draftees for fitness. The testing will be utilized on civilian populations after the war and the field of psychometrics was born.
    1925 - Counselor certification
    The first certification of counselors in New York and Boston takes place.
    1929 - Abraham and Hannah Stone
    Established the first marriage and family counseling center in New York City.
    1930 - E.G. Williamson
    The University of Minnesota's E.G. Williamson modified Parsons' theories and used the trait-and-factor theory to counsel students and the unemployed. This first counseling theory emphasized the teaching, mentoring, and influencing skills of the counselor. Williamson became the 10th president of the American College Personnel Association (1941-1945).
    1932 - Education as Guidance published
    Author Edmund Brewer proposed that teachers should be counselors, and that guidance be incorporated as a subject in curriculums to prepare students for life after completing school.
    1939 - U.S. Employment Service established
    The service was established and published the first edition of The Dictionary of Occupational Titles, which became the primary source of career information for guidance ...

    Solution Summary

    The expert examines Micro, Mezzo and Macro perspectives.