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Culturally Diverse Populations

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Explain how the history and theories of counseling and psychology have both benefited and oppressed culturally diverse populations. You may use one particular group or more than one group to illustrate your points.

Include the following modern controversial issues (e.g. use of psychotherapy) or discuss the deficit model and its role in benefiting/oppressing culturally diverse populations.

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This solution discusses the history of counseling theories that have benefited culturally diverse populations.

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(a) Explain how the history and theories of counseling and psychology have both benefited and oppressed diverse populations.

Psychology has a history in the disciplines of religion and philosophy in which scientists speculated about the nature and identity of the human being. Unfortunately, these views resulted in speculations about human nature that were often based on ethnic and cultural factors. Research shows that ethnicity and race were described in social constructions, and applied to groups based on markers such as physical features, skin color, gender, and sexual orientation (Pope-Davis, Hardin, Coleman, Ming, & Toporek (2003). In developing theories and research, cultural factors were either minimized or ignored when considering variables that may affect the client's psychological health. As an example, Sigmund Freud (1939/1940) was focused on variables such as repressed erotic feelings and unconscious conflicts affecting adult behavior, and presented in views in a way that was demeaning to women. Wesley (1997) asserts that classical psychoanalytic theory was male-oriented and articulated within theoretical formulations that emphasized the male as the model for normalcy. Psychoanalytic approaches to ...

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