Male and Female Leadership:
Think for a moment about the people you may know who are effective leaders. Consider the characteristics they possess that make them effective in their roles, as well as the leadership styles they employ. Now that you have conjured the vision of effective leaders in your mind, consider their gender. How many female leaders did you identify? How many male leaders did you identify?
A description of two effective leadership characteristics of the female leader and two effective leadership characteristics of the male leader you selected.
Explain why each characteristic is effective for the female and male leader. Explain one way your perception of gender impacts your evaluation of the effectiveness of each leader.
Some resources you can use:
Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Chapter 20, "Sexism"
Article: Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106(4), 676-713. .
Article: Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 1-12. Retrieved from the
The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8), 644-658.
Article: Eagly, A. H., & Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist, 65(3), 216-224.
Article: Vinkenburg, C. J., van Engen, M. L., Eagly, A. H., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C. (2011). An exploration of stereotypical beliefs about leadership styles: Is transformational leadership a route to women's promotion? The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 10-21.
Article: Wilbourn, M. P., & Kee, D. W. (2010). Henry the nurse is a doctor too: Implicitly examining children's gender stereotypes for male and female occupational roles. Sex Roles, 62(9), 670-683.Websites
Social Psychology Network. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.socialpsychology.org
Article: Allen, J., & Smith, J. L. (2011). The influence of sexuality stereotypes on men's experience of gender-role incongruence. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(1), 77-96.
Article: Killeen, L. A., Lopez-Zafra, E., Eagly, A. H. (2006). Envisioning oneself as a leader: Comparisons of women and men in Spain and the United States. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(3), 312-322.
In this particular task, you are being asked to talk about leadership. I suggest using this simple outline:
1. On Leadership & Gender - 100 words
2. Effective leadership among females, SW & sample, focus on 2 - 150 words
3. Same as in #2 but on Males, focus on 2 - 150 words
4. Perception on impact of gender - 100 words
Leadership and Gender:
What is leadership? Leadership is about providing a sense of vision, direction and management of people through influence and communication for the purpose of accomplishing a shared task. A leader is one who envisions ways of doing and making, is able to talk and guide others and through skills and unique characteristics 'steer' the group into achieving what they set out to do. Leadership is different from management in that management is all about their function and how they are perceived. Managers have people that they 'coordinate' and conduct - their subordinates in a hierarchy. Leaders have people who follow them because they see in the leader a certain kind of charisma, an appeal that transforms them from mere subordinates to followers. For example bank managers manage their employee and their business, aware of the roles and rules as well as functions and deadlines. Politicians on the other hand lead their constituents; the people that they serve through their vision of what they deem will create a progressive community. Now, does it matter if a leader is male, female or part of the third sex? Will it affect their leadership effectiveness? To ponder on this, we can explore effective traits of leaders by gender.
Who are some of the most notable female leaders that we have in our time? I can offer 2 quite easily - Hillary Clinton, American Secretary of State and Nobel Peace ...
The solution provides information, assistance and advise in tackling the task (see above) on the topic of leadership effectiveness and gender. The solution provides an outline that breaks down the tasks set and based on this outline, provides key information in the form of a narrative to help the student complete the task. Accessible resources are listed for further exploration of the topic. This is all completed in just under 1000 words.