What is the biological basis of sleep and dreams? Where do dreams occur in the cycle of sleep, and why are they important to our psychological well-being?
How did Freud use dreams to help people understand their behaviors? What evidence did he use to support the contention that dream analysis is a valid way of treating mental illnesses? Did the evidence he provide support his claims?
What are the current ideas regarding Freud's dream analysis? What do you conclude about using the method of interpreting dreams to treat mental illness?
(1) What is the biological basis of sleep and dreams? Where do dreams occur in the cycle of sleep, and why are they important to our psychological well being.
(a) There are psycho physiological measures of sleep that are based on electroencephalogram ( EEG) waves that accompany sleep consisting of high and low voltages. Thus, there are periods throughout the night that are dominated by voltages or fast waves. These waves or rapid eye movements (REM) occur during closed eyelids of sleeping under the low voltage activity (Pinel, 2006). According to Pinel, there are four stages of sleep: (a) Stage 1 in which the EEG waves are a low-voltage, high frequency signal, (b) stage 2 increases in EEG frequency and higher amplitude and lower frequency, (c) EEG is defined by the largest and slowest EEG waves (delta waves), and (d) Stage 4 consists of predominant delta waves. After the person reaches stage 4, the individual reverts to stage 1] (p. 343). In addition, according to Pinel, there are certain periods during the sleep period when there are periods of wakefulness; however, individuals don't remember being awake.
(b) Dreams occur in REM sleep. Research is presented that shows REM sleep is physiologically correlated with dreaming (Dement, 1978). According to Dement, research shows ...
This solution describes the biological basis of sleep and dreams, and their occurrence in the cycle of sleep. Additionally, the significance of sleep and dreams to psychological well-being is also discussed.