Please help describe the psychological theories of behaviorism and humanism. Compare and contrast them in relationship to:
Basic or underlying assumptions
Deterministic versus free will
Awareness of self
Almost every day we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality.
Individual personality's surround us humans daily. Sometimes we find individuals with personalities similar to ours and other times we do feel that another is from a different planet then we are. Despite the differences, personality theories have been around for centuries and psychologists today are still using these theories to study and counsel individuals today. Two of these theories are behavioral and humanist theories.
Behavioral psychologists theorize that all behaviors an individual displays are learned through conditioning. Psychologists include B.F Skinner, John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov. Behavioral techniques are still used today to help individuals learn new behaviors. Two of the most widely used techniques are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning uses natural and neutral stimuli and pairs this with a response. An example of this conditioning is Pavlov's dogs. In theory an individual can also be trained to have a conditioned response to neutral stimuli. Operant conditioning uses punishments and rewards when trying to change the client's behavior. Negative behavior negates punishment, positive behavior equals a reward. John Watson summed up behavior therapy in the following quote;
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, ...
This solution is comprised of over 1,000 words with examples, quotes and references on strengths and limitations of personality theories and how these theories are compared and contrasted in relationship to assumptions, self awareness and deterministic v free will.