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The differences between top-down/bottom-up and direct/constructivist approaches to perception

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1) What are the differences between top-down/bottom-up and between direct/constructivist approaches to perception?

2) Compare and contrast capacity vs. bottleneck models of attention.

3) Describe which factors may make perception (e.g., visual search task) and attention (e.g., divided attention) easier/harder. What factors related to the individual, task, and environment?

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1) Top down perception involves actively seeking and extracting sensory information. This type of perception relates to how one's beliefs, expectations, and knowledge impact how we perceive things. By building constructs in one's mind and a cognitive understanding of a stimulus, we can perceive sensory information. Memory also plays a large role in this type of perception. For example, if I remove certain letters (The vowels) in a sentence (e.g. G-d M-rn-ng), you will still know that I said 'Good Morning' because of your memory and past experience.

On the other hand, bottom-up perception is driven by sensory information formed by the physical world. Neither one's existing beliefs, nor high cognitive processes, are needed for perception. Using the same example with ...

Solution Summary

The expert compares and contrasts the capacity versus bottleneck models of attentions.