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Conditioning and Schedules of Reinforcement

To what is the tendency of the CS to elicit the CR related? Is it the number of CS US pairings, the number of times the US has elicited the CR, the intensity of the CR, or the intensity of the CS?

Compensatory drug reactions, such as those to injections of insulin or heroin, offer the strongest support to which of the following ideas? Is it the CR is a weak duplicate of the UR, the extinction is more a suppression of the CR than a forgetting of the conditioning process, the CS acts as an anticipatory signal for the US, or the conditioned response suppression is a good index of CERs?

Elicited is to emitted as ___ is to ___? Is it generalization and discrimination; extinction and acquisition; classical and operant; OR positive reinforcer and negative reinforcer?

If one were trying to establish parallels between operant conditioning and classical conditioning and classical conditioning, one might say that a conditioned reinforcer is similar to what? Is it discrimination learning, reconditioning, a conditioned response, or a conditioned stimulus?

What effect does the schedule of reinforcement have on an organism? Is it can affect the rate of learning, it can lead to reconditioning, it can increase an elicited response, or all 3?

Gamblers often persist at gambling even when they very rarely receive a payoff. How can one explain this persistence? Is it because there is a gradual increase in performance with successive approximations; there is a strong resistance to extinction when performance has been maintained with a variable schedule of reinforcement; typically, the gambler will pause for a brief rest after each case of reinforcement, thereby increasing stamina, OR the gambler experiences learned helplessness and is unable to stop?

What will happen in a classical conditioning experiment if the likelihood of the US following the CS is 30 percent and the likelihood of the US being present alone is also 30 percent? Is it that there will be no conditioning, no matter how contiguous the CS and US; there will be strong conditioning if the US arrives about half a second after the CS; there will be no obvious effect at first, but after a rest period the CR will appear when the CS is presented; OR the animal will show surprise reactions when the CS is presented?

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This solution provides the best response for 21 multiple choice questions related to aspects of conditioning and schedules of reinforcement. Explanations and comments are also included.

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