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Science, Religion & Knowledge Theory Application

Please explain the following -

250 words:
What are key arguments offered by proponents of the scientific method and the critiques of these arguments? Consider, also, the claims of limits on human potential for acquisition of scientific knowledge. Can scientific approaches to knowledge be reconciled with others, such as a prior knowledge, subjectivism, and faith, or are they mutually exclusive?
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600 words:
Explain how knowledge theory is manifested in a particular professional setting that you have knowledge of (educational, manufacturing, service, or business etc.) Incorporate organizations with which you have been or are currently affiliated. Use such observations as a basis for deriving general principles concerning which approaches are effective and which are not.

Solution Preview

Dear Student,
The solution below was prepared as a guide, a point from which you can view perspectives and viewpoints that answer the questions you have indicated in your posting. Please take note of the references - they can be used to expand the narrative presented. Also, don't forget to cross check with the materials you have so as to make your final answer course-specific. All the best of the New Year!

Sincerely,
OTA 105878/Xenia Jones
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The Scientific Method, Beliefs & Critiques

When Rene Descartes declared 'Cogito ergo sum' - 'I think therefore I am', the world of enlightenment started to embark on what would then establish reason as the basis of ascertaining the truth. Prior to this, the Divine Circuit of Knowledge was the standard - what was true was ascertained according to the rules of religion. The Cartesian idea that existence happens because of the mind has led us through generations of thinkers and paradigms to the now accepted norm that what is true about our world and reality can only be arrived at via the scientific process - following the scientific method allows for verifiable knowledge that establish certain 'truths' about how reality works. Theories universal or specific borne out of the scientific method has helped man 'tame' nature and via scientific knowledge develop better working technologies and innovations that lead to more discoveries, realizations and answers to many questions. The biggest critique of scientific knowledge is proposed by many as institutions that are belief-based, i.e. religion. By faith, there is no need for proof to prove the truth behind a claim. But is faith and science really exclusive? Thomas Kuhn argued that some scientists 'hold the scientific method' to be the only ascertainer of truth, yet, in practice, it is possible to 'corrupt' and 'cook' results and data for the purpose of making certain claims achieve the status f scientific theory. By doing so, scientists ignore the ethics of research for personal belief of the ...

Solution Summary

The solution is a two part APA-essay discussing (topic 1) The Scientific Method and knowledge acquisition as well as critiques of scientific knowledge in relation to possible reconciliation with religious and subjective as well as culture-based knowledge and (topic 2) Knowledge Theory Application in a professional setting. In part two knowledge theory is explained and application from a professional position explored. References are provided. A word version of the solution is attached for easy printing.

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