Explain the differences among trace, delay, simultaneous, and backward procedures.
The four procedures namely trace, delay, simultaneous and backward procedures refer to the temporal relationships studied by psychologists in relation to classical conditioning proposed by Pavlov. They refer to the systematic manipulation of the time interval between the Conditioned Stimulus(CS) and the Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS). It has been reported that an interval of half a second between the CS and UCS produces the greatest amount of conditioning. If the time interval is shorter than half a second and negative, where in the CS follows the UCS, it leads to a dramatic failure of conditioning. It has been revealed that there may be different optimum interval for different responses. The four important types of temporal relationships have been studied by psychologists for classical conditioning.
1.Trace conditioning: It refers to a procedure which relies more on memory. Trace is a technical term used for denoting memory. Trace conditioning takes place in a situation which is quite similar to delayed conditioning, but it is different from delayed conditioning due to the fact that the CS ceases before the UCS starts. Thus, there is no physical overlap between the CS and UCS. Here, the UCS is associated with the memory of the CS. ...
The solution provides the differences between the four temporal relationships of Conditioned Stimulus (CS) and Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) as related to Classical conditioning proposed by Pavlov.