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    Smoking: Approaches to Intervention

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    How can the habit of smoking develop? What could be the impact of role models in the development of this habit? Why does a person continue to smoke?

    Use the behavioral personality theory to explain the habit of smoking.

    Describe components of social/cognitive theory that explain why this habit can form.

    How can operant condition be used to help someone stop smoking?

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    Research reveals that nicotine is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in the United States (Pinel, 2006). The psychological and physical effects of nicotine are well-documented in the literature. Because nicotine is highly addictive, quitting may attribute to severe symptoms that make the stopping of smoking difficult such as irritability, nervousness and a craving for the drug. Given these adverse consequences for smoking, a behavioral modification program may be proposed aimed at stopping smoking by focusing on the adverse health consequences of smoking.

    The danger of cigarette smoking may be viewed in which certain behaviors such as self-control are lacking. Self-control is needed to overcome the lapses that can occur between the smoking of a cigarette and the immediate gratification that comes with the smoking of another cigarette. Research reveals that one reason individuals develop the habit of smoking is because it reduces stress, and has a soothing and calming effect. Cigarette smoking is a stimulant that results in heightened states of arousal, and/or euphoria. Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR [APA], 2000), many individuals continue to smoke to relieve and/or avoid withdrawal symptoms when they wake up in the morning, or after being in a situation where smoking has been prohibited (p. 264).

    Role models for smoking can come from peers who smoke, or from efforts to socialize or fit in. Mercken, Snijders, Steglich, Vertiainen, & de Vries (2010) examined the smoking behavior of adolescents, and found that in smoking behavior among males as well as females, smokers tend to select other smokers as friends. ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses theoreis to explain the habit of smoking.